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Britain's package tax system

2018-10-22 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Britain's package tax system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的包税制。自进入封建时期开始到1642年内战爆发,英国的封建领地和爵位世代相传,建立了以私人占有职位、包税制及地方家产制为特征的财政体制。根据掠夺性统治理论,包税制中的政治力量博弈体现在包税主体相对议价能力的变化中。国王、议会和包税人三方主体的政治权力在动态中实现均衡,最终形成的包税契约不仅约束着包税商人,也控制着国王及政府的税收行为。

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In the early middle ages, there was little lasting political unity in Britain. Since the Norman conquest in 1066, Britain entered the feudal period. William the conqueror required all nobles to pledge allegiance to the king. From the beginning of the feudal period to the outbreak of the civil war in 1642, the feudal estates and titles of England were handed down from generation to generation, and a financial system characterized by private occupation, tax system and local property system was established. The household finances are financed by royal land and fees, which cannot be levied at will or subject to perennial taxation. Even for the cost of a country's foreign war, the monarch must have the consent of parliament to collect some kind of "provisional tax".

Like other feudal lords, the king often did not get enough revenue from his position as king of the whole country to cover the royal expenses, which led to his imposition of taxes. After the 14th century, taxation changed from temporary payment to regular payment to guarantee national security and social stability. Britain's rulers gradually found the tax package as an efficient and cheap means of fiscal absorption, and applied it to indirect taxes such as tariffs and consumption taxes to solve the urgent fiscal problems.

According to the theory of predatory rule, the game of political power in inclusive taxation is reflected in the change of the relative bargaining power of the subject of inclusive taxation. The political power of the king, parliament and the tax-payer is balanced in the dynamic. The final tax contract not only restricts the tax-payer, but also controls the tax behavior of the king and his agent. The formation of tax contract doctrine led by parliament puts the tax package of the king and the government under the law. The tax package contract is ostensibly the contract between the ruler and the tax payer, but it also has two premises: one is that the king gets the tax right, and the other is that the tax payer has sufficient capital.

Parliament is a national organization with the power to approve taxes. If it does not agree with the king and the government to levy a certain amount of taxes, the king and the government will have to seek other ways. In the early days of parliament, it was relatively easy for the king to obtain the power of taxation, because parliament rarely became the opposition force in politics. The powerful royal power even forced the parliament to grant the king the power of lifelong taxation. As for the way of taxation, the parliament had no right to intervene. On the one hand, the tax package freed the king from the burden of tax administration, which was short of manpower and expertise in tax collection, and allowed the king and the government to budget the annual revenue. On the other hand, the package tax system became the embodiment of abandoning state property and the power of national taxation. The prevalence of the package tax system further weakened the power of the king and the government. In order to get parliament to agree to levy taxes, the king repeatedly compromised his political power, which led to the enhancement of parliament's bargaining power. Before the industrial revolution, the development of industry and commerce to promote the UK tax package from businessmen, social and political elites gradually transforms the feudal aristocracy or monopoly, giants began in the parliament at all levels to participate in political consultation, and constantly in the political and legal safeguard the interests of the tax package people, along with the king and the bargaining power of the government. After the glorious revolution, the social class structure changed, and the new bourgeoisie aristocrats had more say in the national fiscal policy, which made the government take the initiative to cooperate with the parliament to carry out tax reform, and the package tax system was gradually abolished.

In the 12th century, the city began to emerge as the center of economic activity in Britain, and its population, commercial activities and wealth accumulation were constantly increasing. Since the 14th century, the rapid development of industry and commerce has enriched the government's financial resources and prompted the government to constantly open up new taxes from commercial activities. In order to increase the financial revenue of the royal family, the country consciously promoted the development of capitalism. Due to the high liquidity of commercial wealth, businessmen with knowledge of tax sources and rich tax experience could tax commercial wealth more efficiently, and the king began to actively cooperate with businessmen when levying taxes.

In the agrarian feudal hierarchical order based on land, the feudal system gave the aristocrats priority, upper social status and control over the courts, while the merchants had no status. The development of mercantilism finally broke through this feudal constraint. From the 16th century, Britain implemented the mercantilist policy, aiming at the state's participation in the capitalist economic development and increasing the royal revenue by means of monopoly and monopoly. Under the mercantilist policy, all economic activities are "franchised", and the tax package also becomes a "franchised" business activity. This concession sometimes manifests itself as a monopoly, and sometimes as an overall control of business. The package tax creates amazing profits for the package tax payers. Financial capitalists become the creditors of the country. The big capitalists, package tax payers or directly participate in the management of the government, or have the power to control the government. However, with the maturity of capitalist economy, levying business tax through contracting is quite despotic and backward. At this time, if the country transfers the tax right or mortgages to others, making the tax payers wantonly seize property, it will make the economy lack innovation and vitality.

Prior to the Norman conquest, the English rulers had direct control over most of the towns. The king appointed "stewards" to manage the revenue of the towns. After the Norman conquest, the king appointed magistrates to serve as the highest administrative heads of the counties, which enjoyed executive, judicial, and financial powers. In the tax, the governor's greed weighed heavily on the citizens and led to a sharp drop in the royal income. In order to obtain more financial revenue, the king began to sell a writ of privilege to the towns and made them pay taxes directly. Thus, after the 12th century, citizens began to buy the right of self-government taxes from the king, and the town's own elected officials paid the taxes directly to the finance department, through which the self-government was retained. In the 13th century, great progress was made in both civic awareness and municipal self-government in England. By 1835, almost every city had a history of self-government. The package tax system made citizens realize that they could directly pay taxes to the king of England, and aroused citizens' awareness of rights. Citizens in cities and towns used collective bargaining to decide public affairs and used democratic and legal mechanisms to restrain the king's tax power. The municipal body of the borough consists of municipal officials elected by the citizens, and is solely responsible for the town's financial, administrative and judicial affairs. But boroughs are still suppressed by the king, who can revoke a town's autonomy on the grounds that it has failed to fulfill its obligations. However, even the citizens' own elected tax officials could not change the disadvantages and nature of the tax package. The town strengthened its direct connection with the king through tax package, but it created the closure and monopoly of local trade. The Renaissance brought huge ideological impact to the old system, the city formed a new political pattern, the king and the government became rational state operators, the self-government charters were gradually abolished, and the economic and political foundation on which the self-government privilege package tax system depended began to loosen.

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