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北美作业代写:The complexity of the market economy

2018-09-26 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The complexity of the market economy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了市场经济的复杂性。市场经济是开放的自发生成系统,是学界的一个定论。市场经济虽然是自组织系统,却与自然界其他的自组织系统有所不同,其根本区别就在于它是自组织的属人系统。市场经济虽然与自然界其他的自组织系统有所区别,但在复杂性上却不仅与之相同且有过之而无不及。

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Through the practice test of human economic activities, the market economy is superior to other ways of organizing economic life such as relying on tradition or administrative order in realizing the efficient allocation of resources. In the spring tide of reform and opening up, the Chinese nation confronted with the rapid transformation of economic society and rationally chose market economy to realize modernization. In this case, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of its nature in order to more consciously control their own destiny. Market economy has expanded into the world system in the present era, and global integration is the globalization of market economy in the final analysis. People seem to have become familiar with the nature of the market economy that has been ignored. However, whether the market economy is essentially a "simple" mechanical system or a "complex" self-organizing system remains to be further studied and discussed. On the basis of some basic consensus in the academic world, this essay intends to make a brief analysis of its essential complexity by referring to the modern complex system scientific paradigm, in order to initiate a more in-depth discussion.

Although the market economy is a self-organizing system, it is different from other self-organizing systems in nature. Market economy is an economic system generated spontaneously in the course of human social history, and a self-organizing system generated "collectively and unintentionally" in the practice of consciously satisfying one's own needs. Man, regardless of whether he is motivated by absolute self-interest or not, has infinite rationality or limited rationality, and is always the subject of market economic activities. In other words, the fact that the market economy is human may not be controversial.

Market economy, as a kind of self-generated personal system, has to contain many attributes of human. Among them, the greatest influence on the system is human's conscious initiative. In fact, similar to the later market economy, people's conscious initiative is also spontaneous, unconscious generation. About 2.5 million years ago, some members of the australopithecine branch of the anthropoid ape family began pounding one stone against another and, intentionally or not, perpetuated the practice. In any case, there was no such thing as conscious awareness, and there was no future design or planning for the space shuttle. However, it is in this initial "unconscious" activity that people and their conscious awareness gradually emerge, and gradually develop with the development of practical activities. Even after entering the civilization era, it gradually became one of the most remarkable symbols that distinguish people from other things. And affect all activities including market economy activity. "The self-generating system is an amazing antinomy." Man is half an angel and half a beast, as the sages say, and his intellect and beast, reason and irrationality are always interwoven, and always affect his choice and behavior, either implicitly or explicitly. The animality and irrationality of man correspond to the spontaneity of market economy. So, for the market economy, on the one hand is because of its spontaneous generation and inherent in the design, general purpose, on the other hand is due to the participation of people and then to rational control them and generate a planned way, specific purpose, and the two aspects of opposites and coordination, became the people one of the basic contradiction of self-organization system.

Although the market economy is different from other self-organizing systems in nature, it is not only the same in terms of complexity, but also better. As a self-organizing system, the market economy has all the complexity of the undesigned open system in nature, while human nature makes it "more complex" by generating more dimensions than other self-organizing systems. To be specific, it can be analyzed from the following aspects at least.

A rational, which is higher than other animals the advantage of power, and control the essence of the natural and social strength, however, with the man with a consciousness generated in its practice, also generated out of the world and the natural world, spiritual world and material world, the subject and object, subjective and objective, theory and practice in the nature of opposite and coordination problems. These problems are embodied in the market economic activities, which are the antagonism and conflict between the economic rationality or purposiveness of different people and the spontaneity or non-design of the market economy, as well as the resulting contradictions. Such as the specific purpose of contradiction between the individual rational economic man, the specific purpose of contradiction between different economic groups, the specific purpose of contradiction between different countries or government, individual rational economic man, economic groups, governments of the specific purpose of contradiction between each other, and the targeted individuals and groups with the market economy, the contradiction of the "invisible hand" and so on. These contradictions are not only non-linear, uncertain and non-reductive, but also actively generated, self-winding, different from person to thing, difficult to balance, and therefore more complex. Furthermore, because people are rational, they can recognize and make use of natural and economic laws. With more and more success in using law, the use of law to control nature and economic activities is gradually internalized into people's inner drive for rational control. We might as well call it human's "civilized instinct". However, practice has proved that human reason can only be limited as it has to be subject to the eternal restriction of social and historical conditions and self-cognition ability, and his understanding level and utilization degree of natural and economic laws can only be limited. In other words, the ever-expanding "known" is always the growing "ignorance" that people have to face. To be able to distinguish between "known" and "ignorant", and to know one's own "ignorance", is a unique ability of man. But as popper says: "science can be wrong. Because we are people and people make mistakes. When people are excessively obsessed with the "unlimited" power of instrumental rationality and rational construction and indulge in harnessing the law to change the fruits of nature, they will forget that the power of rationality also lies in critical reflection and correction of errors, and forget that what they do not know cannot be designed and controlled, thus falling into the "fatal conceit". Besides, nature and natural law, economic law will never take the initiative to meet the needs of the people, in particular, the rule only in "negation" has absolute sense, and is regulated in "certain" sense a possibility space, but the people of bounded rationality can't fully grasp the possibility space, he is often ready to pursue what he likes to those who can, and often they are not within the potential space of law norms, this is one of the basic source of all sorts of mistakes. In this way, the market economy adds an unavoidable dimension of "rationalization error" and becomes more complicated.

Different from the needs and choices of the animal instinct, the needs of human beings are consciously aware of the needs, and the needs are multifaceted, including material, spiritual, moral, interpersonal, etc., so their choices are also conscious choices guided by specific values. There is no denying that people's needs, values and their choices have some commonness or unity and homogeneity. There is no denying that people's needs, values and their choices have more characteristics or diversity and heterogeneity. Just as the latter cannot deny the former, neither can the former deny the latter. But when it comes to practical issues, people are more likely to face the latter. It needs to be pointed out here that market economy activity is the activity that people consciously pursue interests, among which, "everything people strive for is related to their interests." It is well known that, on most occasions, it is difficult to reach a consensus or a common standard on matters of interest, unless one is faced with life or death or other irresistible pressures. Because, from the perspective of human history and social reality, "interests" are basically irrational. Logical reasoning and patient persuasion alone are of little use. And no interest group, no matter how powerful, can force everyone to accept their standards of interest with conviction, especially for individuals who have developed a sense of subjectivity in a market economy. In this way, the opposition and coordination of different interests, including between individuals, between individuals and groups, between different groups, and between short-term interests and long-term interests, has become a very complicated issue. In addition, as a social being, man has also generated a unique moral system to regulate interpersonal relations in his own practice. Why do people also pursue social reputation, pay attention to integrity and praise virtue in the market economy activities centering on regulating interpersonal material interests? Because following these norms, at least, reduces transaction costs and benefits people in the long run. In this sense, morality can finally be equivalent to utility. However, similar to the utility, the moral concept also varies from person to person. Therefore, in the regulation and evaluation of economic man's behavior, there will be diverse, different, uncertain, difficult to force unification and other complex attributes. Because "egoism" and "sympathy", derived from "self-love", also have the complexity of self-entanglement and lead to the self-entanglement of "egoism" and "altruism" in human economic behavior. In addition, limited rationality such as conscious needs, expectations, interest demands, values, moral norms, rules and restrictions will not exclude irrationality based on emotion, will, passion, intuition, insight, etc., and human choice is far beyond the animal's instinct of "seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages" in terms of complexity. If other natural self-organizing systems only follow the law of natural selection, then the market economy, which belongs to the self-organizing system, has the dimension of human's conscious choice. Not to mention the complexity of human error which is unavoidable under the guidance of limited rationality or irrationality, the complexity of human's conscious choice is jaw-dropping if carefully analyzed. The instinct of animals to "seek the good and avoid the evil" is only for the immediate and immediate situation, while the conscious choice of human beings is not only for the present, but also for the past and the future. On the one hand, it contains the accumulation of all knowledge in the past and the expectation of the future; on the other hand, it also contains irrational factors and even some minor effects. The critical moment must not be lost on the subtleties, for "even the smallest fluctuations can make a decisive choice between different evolutionary paths. This chaotic, non-classical process of decision is called system 'bifurcation'.

The tool system created by man in his own practice, including the material tool system and the language system, is a miracle in the evolution of the universe and adds a dimension of tools that cannot be ignored to the human world. By creating and using tool systems, man is the most powerful species in nature. The production and ever-expanding and innovative reproduction of these tool systems not only play an important role in the generation and evolution of the market economy, but also play an unprecedented role in the generation of the market economy system and exert an unpredictable influence on its further evolution. In view of the obvious innovative function of the material tool system, this essay only focuses on the huge innovative function and complexity of the "software" system of language and words. Is only the creation of the unique language system, is associated with the life the most novelty, natural objects could not spontaneously generated by the "symbol" system, its internal structure and contains "meaning world" in the interaction of various elements, associated, iteration, the winding, beyond, novel creation, etc., are inseparable with people conscious, therefore, like the human brain, is to be transferred in complexity. "The real human symbol is not in its uniformity, but in its multifaceted nature," cahill notes. It's not stiff, it's flexible." "In the process of mastering language, people always hold a dynamic and creative attitude." Relying on the "objective knowledge" or "world 3" of language and character system or "symbol", it not only has complex interaction with "world 1" and "world 2", but also has its own unique evolution process. The remarkable feature of this process itself is the novel creation that is hard to predict and control. In a certain sense, all innovation of modern market economy is closely related to the development of world 3. The emergence of such concepts as "information society" and "knowledge economy", as well as the strength of media advertising, online banking and e-commerce, is a reflection of this internal correlation. In the modern market economy, information is one of the most important resources, both for profit and innovation, while the inherent information asymmetry, incompleteness and "white noise" of the market economy add more uncertainties, unpredictable and difficult to control, etc. for selection, evaluation, decision-making and innovation. Innovation is the inexhaustible power of market economy evolution. "Evolution is not destiny but opportunity, and the future is not foresight but creation. Opportunities come and go, innovation is hard to predict or control, and its complexity is obvious. In addition, so far, the market economy is to scatter personal knowledge to make full use of the most effective mechanism on innovation, and the existence of itself is self-conscious beyond, more protruding formation, the characteristics of market economy, because, as hayek put it: "humanity has the infinite diversity - there is a wide range of personal ability and potential differences - is one of the most unique human truth." It is not hard to see, personal ability and potential infinite differences, dispersed the infinite variety of knowledge, symbols and meaning combination of infinite possibility, infinite and open to the growth of knowledge, combined with their mutual combination in the open market economy system and form innovation unlimited prospects, cannot but make the complexity of the market economy is far more than any other system of self-organization.

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