代写范文

留学资讯

写作技巧

论文代写专题

服务承诺

资金托管
原创保证
实力保障
24小时客服
使命必达

51Due提供Essay,Paper,Report,Assignment等学科作业的代写与辅导,同时涵盖Personal Statement,转学申请等留学文书代写。

51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标

私人订制你的未来职场 世界名企,高端行业岗位等 在新的起点上实现更高水平的发展

积累工作经验
多元化文化交流
专业实操技能
建立人际资源圈

作业代写:Economic governance

2018-09-21 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Economic governance,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了经济治理。近年来,学者提出的理论不仅提高了人们对非市场制度的理解,还为市场不完善条件下的经济治理提供了合适的解决方案。在金融危机的背景下,政策制定要兼顾各方利益,培育社会资本,强化民间组织的作用,一次为市场配置资源创造良好的条件,并要认清企业边界的决定条件,合理调控企业规模。

Economic governance,经济治理,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The 2009 Nobel Prize in economics was awarded to ostrom and Williamson for their contributions to economic governance. Ostrom pointed out a feasible path for public resource management and collective cooperation; Williamson provides a reasonable explanation and an easy to operate research method for the existence of enterprises and the determination of enterprise boundaries. Their research has improved people's understanding of non-market system and provided suitable solutions for economic governance under imperfect market conditions. In the background of the financial crisis, their theory has a strong inspiration for China's economic development: policy making should take into account the interests of all parties and make decisions on the land. We should cultivate social capital and strengthen the role of non-governmental organizations. We should create favorable conditions for market allocation of resources. The determination of enterprise boundary and reasonable regulation of enterprise scale should be recognized.

The 2009 Nobel Prize in economics was awarded to Eleanor bremington, a political scientist at indiana university. Ostrom and the economists of new institutional economics at the university of California, Berkeley E oliver Williamson, two people for analysis of excellence in the field of economic governance. According to the royal Swedish academy of sciences, ostrom won the prize for a special analysis of public resource management, which laid out the evidence for why user associations were able to manage public property. Williamson won for his special analysis of the company's boundaries, explaining why some deals are done inside the company rather than in the market. The two scholars greatly improved people's understanding of the non-market system. Based on the perspective of real economy governance in the context of financial crisis, this paper explains the academic contributions of two scholars and their enlightenment to China's economic and social construction.

Ms ostrom has written more than 200 papers, most of them in political science or public management journals, but few in economics, so many economists are unfamiliar with her. Her important work in the way of "public affairs management, the evolution of the system of collective action" has been translated into multinational, including Chinese words, such as "the ideological crisis of public administration", "the political theory of compound republic" and other important works, in political science, political economy, public administration, public policy, development research and other fields has a very high academic reputation, first of its kind of political theory and policy analysis and research has been recognized as one of the three American public choice school. The main research directions of ostrom include: how to use the research achievements in understanding science to establish models to discuss and explain the selection of human beings under different institutional arrangements; How each system produces information that helps individuals make decisions; What kind of deviation and adjustment exist in the collective decision-making process of different ways; How different preferences are amplified and corrected in the interactive process within the various institutional frameworks. Specifically speaking, ostrom's academic contribution is mainly reflected in the following aspects.

Mr Ostrom's combination of politics and economics is unique and legitimate. Because economics is a science of how material interests are distributed, it is never possible to exclude the political settlement of conflicts of interest. The combination of political science and economics is the only way to find the right way to allocate resources without breaking away from reality. By means of field experience, detailed investigation and experimental methods, ostrom has made a lot of development in the research and obtained many new achievements. Starting in the early 1990s, ms ostrom and her colleagues developed laboratory techniques to predict human behavior in social paradoxes under laboratory conditions, and to compare them with empirical findings. Despite her research method was mocked as "return to the literary tradition of economics", although she is not that kind of extensive use of mathematical or statistical model of "high technology" economists, but still got out of her research, she now American art and academy of sciences and the national academy of sciences, and served as the chairman of the American politics, which is proved. On September 27, 1997, in the political economics prize awarding meeting, seidman Kennedy Eleanor commented: "professor ostrom's contribution is comprehensive politics and economics at the same time, beyond the politics and economics. The political solution to market failure is far more than the simple idea of new hobbesian welfare economics.

The externality of public resources will not only cause market mechanisms to fail here, but also the government's visible hand will tremble here, causing the government to fail. Staunch market fundamentalists raise the flag of coase's theorem, arguing that externalities are no longer hard to solve as long as property rights are clear. However, transaction cost is an unavoidable obstacle to clear property rights, and the efficient resource management mode of "no property right" caused by zero transaction cost can only be a mirage forever. Anti-market people believe that nationalization is an effective way to solve the dilemma of public resource management. The direct management of resources by the government can not only effectively play the role of economies of scale, but also curb the erosion of resources by private interests and ensure that the utilization of resources is in line with the maximization of social interests. However, the public choice school has long pointed out that the government is not all "benevolent", but also has its own interest demands, which can easily be captured and become the spokesman of interest groups. As becker puts it: all political systems have succumbed to special interest groups trying to use political influence to boost welfare. Mr Ostrom offers a possible solution to this dilemma: self-governance, which means managing public resources in a way that suits local traditions. It can be purely civil, it can be completely government, and it can be a sort of combination of the two. It is necessary to build a communication mechanism between private and government, which is dangerous and harmful, to foster cooperation between the two. Mr Ostrom used satellite images to analyse the management of the grasslands along the border between Russia and China. He found that the grasslands on the border between China and Russia, which had been managed by state co-operation and privatisation, were now severely degraded, while the grasslands, which had been managed by nomadic herders for centuries, remained intact. From this, she concludes that socialization and privatization are often more likely to lead to bad consequences than collective self-management. It is also believed that resource users themselves can often develop effective mechanisms for making decisions and implementing management.

When analyzing the characteristics of economic man, mainstream economics overemphasizes the rational and self-interested characteristics of economic man and ignores the existence of mutual trust and mutual dependence within social groups. If people are rational and self-interested, then there is bound to be what olson calls the collective action dilemma, and the larger the organization, the more common the cheap hitchhikers, and the more difficult the cooperation. In fact, people can get satisfaction from caring about others and the interests of groups. This kind of trust between people, the relationship network built by trust and the interpersonal interaction norms existing in the network are social capital. In the opinion of the author, economic people rich in social capital carry out a lot of cooperation through the social ethics system, and replace the passion, desire and tyrannical tendency with a wise, loyal and rational way to pursue the maximum benefit or utility. Neoclassicism's fiction of "rational economic man", the concept of dependence on equilibrium, and the insistence that price is the main determinant of market behavior are inconsistent with our reality, while the hypothesis of "ethical economic man" just makes up for the defects brought to human society by "economic man's only greed for wealth". Just like physical capital and human capital, social capital is an indispensable part of people's pursuit of goals. Moreover, the existence of social capital is also conducive to the performance of other capital efficiency. It is because of the existence of social capital that self-organization can produce a set of rules, and individuals in the organization can make use of the code of conduct, supervision and punishment mechanism to make public resources serve the common and long-term interests of the organization. The successful management of self-organization stems from the active participation of the members in the creation and implementation of the rules. If the rules are imposed and enforced by external or internal powerful figures, the effect will be greatly reduced. Mr Ostrom also found that oversight by insiders worked better than by outsiders, in keeping with the general view that oversight and punishment should be enforced by public authority. Through experiments, ostrom found that many people were willing to pay a private cost in order to punish hitch-hiking. It can be seen that intra-group cooperation is fundamental, which provides evidence on the level of individual behavior for self-organization management. Self-organizing self-governance model provides promising solutions for public resource management, enabling people to achieve lasting common benefits in the face of the temptation of free riding, avoiding responsibility or other opportunistic behavior. This is undoubtedly a modest compromise solution under realistic constraints.

Williamson's research shows that markets and bureaucratic organizations, including companies, represent different governance structures and take different approaches to resolving conflicts of interest. The defects of the market structure lie in the frequent disputes and disagreements. The defects of the company structure lie in the fact that power can reduce disputes but will be abused. Competitive markets work better because buyers and sellers can switch to other trading partners if they disagree. However, if the market competition is restricted or regulated, the company as a structure can better solve the conflict of interest than the market. One of the key predictions that has been empirically proved in Williamson's theory is that economic individuals with decision-making abilities tend to trade within company boundaries the more specific the relationship of assets.

Coase was the first to discuss the nature and boundary of the enterprise. Coase believes that the nature of the enterprise is the enterprise as an institution different from the market mechanism. Enterprise and market are two different ways to organize trading activities. Transaction costs can be generated through market mechanism and transaction by enterprises. The reason why enterprises and markets coexist is that some types of activities are completed through the market with lower costs, while some activities are completed through enterprises with lower costs. The market mechanism is formed when the transaction activity occurs between different individuals or organizations through the price mechanism. As an alternative to the market price mechanism, enterprises can "save some market operating costs by forming an organization and allowing certain authorities to control resources". As a matter of fact, transaction cost is the friction in the economy. Once the cost of market transaction is on the rise, enterprises will try to find alternative means of transaction. The smaller the market transaction cost, the more enterprises tend to trade marketization. The boundary of an enterprise depends on the comparison of transaction costs between the two organizations. When the marginal costs of both are equal, the boundary of an enterprise is determined. Williamson first referred to the new institutional economics as "transaction cost economics", which shows his emphasis on the core concept of transaction cost. It is because of Williamson's emphasis on and in-depth study of transaction costs that coase's transaction costs theory has become an emerging faction in modern economics, which has gathered a large number of interdisciplinary and academic innovations including organization theory, law and economics, and gradually developed into a new branch of contemporary economics. From the 1960s to the 1980s, Williamson made a deep and unique exploration of the nature and boundary of enterprises, and mainly solved three problems.

In general, the research of ostrom and Williamson is aimed at finding appropriate solutions to economic governance problems in realistic constraints. If the conditions are met, the market mechanism will be the most efficient in the allocation of resources, which is demonstrated repeatedly by mainstream economists with a large number of sophisticated models, and it is their efforts to elevate economics to a prominent position in social science. However, the reality is always unsatisfactory, and the conditions for the market mechanism to fully play its role are always not met. Therefore, the exquisite model and scientific language will not help solve the problems of real economy and society, instead, it is suspected of being "subordinate to the state". Putting aside the gaudy "science" of economics and looking for a more appropriate solution might be a smart way to deal with the shock of the current financial crisis. The move by the royal Swedish academy of sciences to award the Nobel Prize in economics to ostrom and Williamson could be interpreted as a "corrective" to market fundamentalism. As the Nobel Prize in economics is presented each year, there is a debate over who should win and who should win. And once the results are made public, there will be people singing the praises and some derision. The really meaningful discussion, in our view, is to revisit the direction in which the Nobel Prize committee has suggested that economic theory should lead.

51due留学教育原创版权郑重声明:原创essay代写范文源自编辑创作,未经官方许可,网站谢绝转载。对于侵权行为,未经同意的情况下,51Due有权追究法律责任。主要业务有essay代写、assignment代写、paper代写、作业代写服务。

51due为留学生提供最好的essay代写服务,亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多essay代写范文 提供代写服务,详情可以咨询我们的客服QQ:800020041。

上一篇:作业代写:Financial liberalization 下一篇:作业代写:Labour relations in the U