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作业代写:The divestment of multinationals

2018-09-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The divestment of multinationals,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了跨国公司的撤资。随着金融危机的蔓延,国内经济的发展也受到了一些影响,使一些跨国企业出现了撤资或撤离现象。对外资的纷纷出逃,我们要理性对待。在经济全球化背景下,我们利用外资的内外部条件都发生了质的变化,现有的引资方式已经无法适应经济发展的要求,为了适应全球产业调整和经济环境变化对国际投资资本规模和结构传导的变更,外资的撤离也是意料之中。

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In recent years, with the continuous development of China's economy and the appreciation of RMB, the development of foreign enterprises has been under pressure. The divestment of multinational companies in China has gradually filled the world's attention. Therefore, how to correctly view the withdrawal of enterprises in China is an issue that should not be underestimated.

The global spread of the 2008 financial crisis has also affected our economy. In view of the withdrawal phenomenon of foreign-funded enterprises, the author believes that an objective analysis should be made on the withdrawal country, the investment industry, and the change of China's currency value to return the truth of the withdrawal of multinational enterprises.

According to the statistics of the ministry of commerce, 4,652 foreign-invested enterprises decreased their investment in China from January to November 2008, and 4,564 foreign-invested enterprises terminated their operations in China, among which 70.4% and 60.3% of all capital reductions and withdrawals were made by the manufacturing industry. In 2009, the industries that foreign-invested enterprises defund changed significantly, mainly in the service industry. In the first four months of this year, foreign investment in the service industry decreased by 31% year-on-year, more than 10% higher than the national average and 2% higher than the manufacturing industry. In general, the divestment phenomenon of foreign investors in China has a certain degree of universality.

Although many foreign firm in China is currently the ideal investment in developing countries, the world's most development potential of one of the economy and the most investment prospects, but in recent years, statistics show that the global financial crisis or to multinational enterprise management has brought greater difficulty, especially some of the smaller enterprises with foreign investment, because of mismanagement or disappointments are evacuated from mainland China, at the same time, to the local growth and employment management brings certain negative effect, make some international also wondering about the problem of the investment environment of public opinion.

Take Qingdao in shandong province as an example. In the past two years, 206 south Korean enterprises illegally evacuated from the area have involved 26,000 workers, 160 million yuan of wages in arrears and nearly 700 million yuan of bank loans. Judging from the industrial structure of the divestment enterprises, 151 out of 206 are labor-intensive enterprises, among which 63 are jewelry, 33 are clothing, 28 are leather, 14 are luggage, and 13 are shoe-making. In addition, the President of adidas said he would gradually withdraw from China; Thousands of shoe factories in the pearl river delta have closed and more than 10, 000 foreign-invested enterprises have fled.

There is no doubt that the withdrawal of foreign investment will have a considerable negative impact on the host economy. Since reform and opening up, China's focus has been on foreign investment, foreign management policies and regulations also tend to be attracted more aspects, and accompanied with foreign investment for withdrawals, born of the problem is not enough research, in recent years, the wave of withdrawals made us realized the severity of the problem, therefore, to strengthen the research of multinational company withdrew, fully aware of the negative impact of withdrawals and reasons, will withdraw events and control the harm caused by the minimum range is at present, the effective use of foreign capital is an important research problem.

According to Dunning's compromise theory of international production, enterprises engaged in foreign direct investment must have a combination of three advantages, namely the ownership advantages, internalization advantages and location advantages, ownership advantages and internalization advantages can be through the enterprise's own development and have, and location advantage is the external variables, only by investors to seek in the world and the enterprise itself cannot create, can adapt to and use of the advantage. Compared with other developing countries, China's national economy continues to grow rapidly, forming a huge market advantage. The investment environment, especially the soft environment, is improving constantly, political and social stability, foreign investment policies are relatively preferential, and the legal system is relatively complete. Rich in labor cost advantages, abundant labor resources, hard working workers, low wages, low labor standards. These regional advantages are the main factors attracting multinational companies to expand investment in China. Of the GIPA conducted by unctad, 87 per cent of multinational companies surveyed consider China the best place to invest.

However, with the continuous gradual reform and the change of international investment environment, China's geographical advantage is also changing gradually. For multinational companies, in the face of changes in China's domestic investment environment and external market environment, that is, regional advantages, it is inevitable to adjust their investment strategies.

With the rapid development of China's economy, the domestic market environment has also changed, market competition has intensified, most products are oversupplied, and product upgrading is accelerated. With the continuous expansion and deepening of the direct investment scale of multinational companies, the competitive intensity of China's market has been greatly intensified. The competition comes from two sides: from other multinationals investing in China and from fast-growing local companies.

As a host country, compared with multinational enterprises with multiple advantages, most local enterprises in China were at a competitive disadvantage in the early stage of reform and opening-up, and some weak national enterprises were merged or eliminated. However, with the adjustment and reform of industrial policies, a number of Chinese enterprises, including state-owned enterprises, joint-stock enterprises and private enterprises, have grown up in the competition with multinational companies and formed the competitive advantages of local enterprises. "Indigenous" comparative advantage, by keeping low cost factors of production, familiar with local market environment, a wide range of contacts, etc., coupled with the advantage of backwardness of technology spillover, from multinational company draw lessons from imitation of foreign advanced technology and management experience, and make these local companies soon in competition with multinational enterprises to be reckoned with.

As a result of the changes in the international economic environment, multinational companies' investment in China has been reduced in two aspects. On the other hand, competition from other countries or regions weakens China's geographical advantage and induces some multinational companies to transfer investment from China.

Under the impact of the global financial crisis in 2008, some enterprises suffered financial difficulties and were on the verge of bankruptcy. Some international financial giants were doomed. In order to alleviate the difficulties, many multinational companies tended to operate conservatively, shrink their investment and even were forced to sell overseas assets. As raw material and energy prices continue to rise, multinational companies need to re-examine costs to survive and grow, to reduce the trend of low profit margins. At the same time, the Chinese government has introduced a new labor contract law to raise labor costs, which has unavoidably increased the burden of the overseas development of multinational enterprises, because it has to choose to withdraw from China.

In the past, abundant labor resources and cheap labor cost advantages are the strong attraction for multinational companies to invest in China. In recent years, labor cost advantages have slowly shifted to other developing countries, especially in Asia. Countries such as India, Vietnam and the Philippines have lower labor costs than China. These neighboring countries of China have made great efforts to improve their hardware facilities, formulated many more favorable policies to encourage the inflow of foreign capital than China, and resorted to low labor costs and new markets to attract the attention of labor-intensive multinational enterprises, so as to gradually weaken or even eliminate some of China's comparative advantages in attracting foreign capital.

The continuous appreciation of RMB will increase the cost of multinational companies in China, thus reducing the attraction of China to foreign capital. Foreign investors can only buy fewer professional assets in host countries with foreign currency, which significantly reduces the investment profits.

In the early 21st century, along with China's economic growth, the price of real estate, infrastructure, raw materials and energy rose, and household spending rose, requiring a corresponding increase in wages. A stronger yuan also reinforces the trend of rising wages in China. Coupled with the promulgation of the new labor contract law, the strict regulations will limit the flexibility of employers and will eventually lead to the increase of China's production costs. It can be expected that China's wage level will continue to increase. That leaves many industries, particularly manufacturing and services, where higher labor costs will force foreign companies to reconsider where they invest or whether they continue to do business in China.

To foreign capital flight in succession, we should treat rationally! In the context of economic globalization, foreign direct investment is faced with the challenge of adjusting industries to globalization and the new international market pattern. Especially under the background that the internal and external conditions of utilizing foreign capital in China have undergone qualitative changes, and the existing ways of attracting foreign capital cannot fully adapt to the requirements of economic development. In order to adapt to the changes of global industrial adjustment and economic environment to the transmission of international investment capital scale and structure, the withdrawal of foreign capital also becomes inevitable.

As a part of China's foreign trade policy, the domestic economic development environment must remain stable at the stage of China's rapid and sustained economic development. As an important way to learn foreign production technology and management, attracting foreign direct investment is a very effective method. The withdrawal of foreign capital enterprises in some industries should be attached great importance to in China.

For the withdrawal of multinational companies, we must calmly analyze its underlying causes and take necessary measures and measures to ensure the purpose of foreign investment introduction in China. In particular, the key industries supported by the state and those that encourage development should do a good job in infrastructure construction and macro-planning to minimize the occurrence of divestment. In addition, the foreign capital policy should be adjusted in time to ensure the stability of inflow and outflow and the healthy and sustainable development of China's national economy. For some multinational enterprises with increased capital flow, they should avoid the economic fluctuations in their regions.

The biggest driver of multinational companies' overseas investment is interests. When better investment projects and investment sites are available, multinational groups may transfer their overseas assets to achieve the goal of maximizing their interests. The large-scale withdrawal of foreign capital from China, though has a negative side to domestic manufacturing, service industry and other industries, it will also encourage private capital to enter related industries, which has a positive side, that is, the withdrawal of foreign capital brings opportunities for private capital investment. Faced with this situation, local enterprises should do a good job in preparing for industrial adjustment and upgrading, timely supplement, and stabilize the development continuity of the industry. The exodus of some multinationals also reflects deep changes in China's economic environment: the old era of attracting foreign capital by relying on cheap land, cheap labor and favorable policies is going away, and foreign-invested enterprises are in a different position at home. This indicates that China's demand for foreign capital has begun to shift from quantity to quality.

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