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作业代写:Quine

2018-08-07 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Quine,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了蒯因。蒯因是20 世纪美国重要的哲学家、逻辑学家和逻辑实用主义的创始人。蒯因的逻辑实用主义思想是在对逻辑经验主义的批判基础上,再吸取美国的实用主义的观点而成,旨在强调系统的、结构式的哲学分析,主张把一般哲学问题置于一个系统的语言框架内进行研究。

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Quine's ontological thoughts from the beginning of the "existence" question, using the method of logical semantics back, illustrates the logical link between, exist, such as quantitative, and then put forward the "ontological commitment" and "ontological relativity" have new connotation of ontological ideology concept, combined with today's society "scientific pragmatism" and "logical empiricism" thought, successfully realizes the modern transformation of traditional ontology and shows its rightful place in the study of philosophy. Based on this, this paper summarizes the value of this theory and gives some related thoughts.

Quine is an important American philosopher, logician, and founder of logical pragmatism in the 20th century. His thought of logical pragmatism is based on the criticism of logical empiricism and the view of American pragmatism, which emphasizes systematic and structural philosophical analysis and advocates to put general philosophical problems into a systematic language framework for research. In view of this, quine believes that ontology, like any scientific theory, is also a matter of choosing a convenient language form and conceptual framework for science. It should not be based on whether it is in conformity with objective reality, but should be based on whether it is convenient and useful.

Quine's ontology is not a traditional ontology problem. In his opinion, traditional ontology is the problem of ontological facts, while his ontology is the problem of "ontological commitment", that is, to ask what is said in a theory about the world, which is related to language but not related to the existence of external objects.

Quine's study of ontology emphasizes the study of language in particular. His so-called ontological problem is not

It's a matter of fact, it's a matter of language. "Generally speaking, what exists does not depend on the use of language, but what people say exists depends on the use of language," quine says. He transformed the discussion of things in the world into a discussion of language. Since language is the common basis for people to study any problem, the in-depth study of language will inevitably involve the ontological problems, and to clarify the ontological problems, we must rely on language.

This semantic level of the concrete strategy is quine called semantically retroactive. "The semantically retroactive strategy is,

It brings the discussion into areas in which both sides agree on the subject under discussion and on the main terms of the subject under discussion ". In quine's view, arguments about ontological positions are semantically retroactive into arguments about language. In this way, we can clarify many different positions, reduce ineffective disputes, and naturally turn the ontological fact problem into the ontological commitment problem.

As mentioned above, the ontological commitment is the question "what do we say exists?" a statement

Or the ontology confirmed by the theory will depend on the expression of the theory. According to quine, "you're not thinking about ontological facts, you're thinking about ontological promises." This kind of commitment is actually a kind of agreement. For example, when we assert that something exists, we are actually agreeing that it exists.

However, the question of ontological commitment is to ask what we have agreed or promised in a theoretical system, and the difference between ontological commitments in different theoretical systems. In this way, we must further clarify two problems: first, the identification method of ontological commitment; Second, the acceptance criteria of ontological commitment. In response, quine tells us that "existence is the value of the constraint variable" and "without identity there is no entity". The former holds that when studying the ontological commitment of a theory, it can be regarded as the ontological commitment of the theory to use the logical method to make semantic compilation first, determine the quantitative formula of the theory, and then determine the value of the constraint variable in the quantitative formula. The latter is quine's recognition by means of the method, with the relationship between "identity" and "entity" as the object of discussion. The "identity" here is a kind of extended identity, also called the individualization principle. According to this principle, if an object cannot distinguish itself from its object, then the object cannot be counted as an acknowledged entity. If one object's properties are the same as those of the other, the two objects are "the same".

The relativity of ontology carries on quine's in-depth reflection on ontology from the perspective of ontological commitment. For this reason, he has demonstrated it in the book relativity of ontology. This kind of argument is carried out from the two aspects of translation uncertainty and referential uncertainty.

The uncertainty of translation is that "we can write manuals in different ways to translate one language into another, all of which conform to the overall linguistic behavioral tendencies, but do not agree with each other". Quine believes that there is no difference between correct and wrong in these translation manuals, and there is a certain uncertainty that will be affected by various factors in the process of translation.

The uncertainty of translation is actually an explanation of the uncertainty of meaning. According to quine's standard of "no identity, no entity", meaning is a non-entity, because the concept of meaning itself is ambiguous, and there is no identity of meaning strictly implemented in translation. Here, quine imagines a situation for us. A linguist comes to a tribe that speaks a completely new native language. The linguist wants to translate the native language into his own language through his learning process. But linguists know nothing about the meaning and internal psychology of native speakers except that they can hear their voices and actions. In this way, the linguist must speak some indigenous languages to the aborigines on a case-by-case basis, and form a preliminary translation by means of their reactions and by contrasting the rules and regulations of their own language. Of course, there are many forms of translation in this situation. They are all agreed by quine, but quine emphasizes that translation is not compatible with each other.

Another aspect of ontological relativity is the extensional uncertainty, quine calls it "the referential unpredictability." he points out that "what is uncertain is not only meaning, but also denotation." In the face of translation uncertainty, not only is the meaning and connotation uncertain, but also the reference and extension are uncertain. It is uncertain, for example, whether the word "gavagai" refers to "the rabbit", "the time period of the rabbit" or "the undivided part of the rabbit". So how does referential unpredictability affect translation? The reason is that different analytical hypothesis systems are compatible with several possible behavioral tendencies, so different analytical hypothesis systems may determine different references for the same translation expression. The so-called "analytical hypothesis" here refers to the ontological framework of the translator's subordination, which reflects the characteristics of the language to which the translator is affiliated according to a specific language system. This indicates that the name contained in an expression has different denotation in different analytical systems, and there is no isolated and absolute reference.

Quine USES the combination of logic and language to rebuild the position of "ontology" in philosophy and change the development direction of the whole analytical movement. The traditional logic and philosophy circles have long been divided over whether there is a connection between logic and ontology and whether to study ontology. Quine, on the other hand, USES modern mathematical logic method to discuss existence from the perspective of pragmatism. He believes that neither philosophy nor logic can avoid or reject ontological problems, because the theory of analyzing philosophers has certain ontological premises.

Quine looks at ontology with a modern philosophical thinking, and has successfully completed the modern transformation of traditional ontology, thus restoring its due status. However, when we try to identify the ontological commitment, we find that its applicability is relatively narrow. In quine, ontological commitment is characterized by quantitative logic as the background framework. Therefore, before identifying ontological commitment, it is necessary to conduct semantic compilation of daily language or theory, and to change it into first-order logical language for research. However, this kind of language form is only suitable for a few theories, which is not common in natural language. Therefore, it also inspires us to keep thinking and improving.

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