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北美作业代写:International economic sovereignty

2018-07-27 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- International economic sovereignty,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了国际经济主权。经济主权,指的是各国对全部财富,自然资源享有永久主权,包括拥有权、使用权和处置权;还包括各国对本国内部和本国对外的一切经济事务,享有完全充分的独立自主的权利,不受任何外来干涉。在国际政治格局多元化和世界经济一体化的发展进程中,国家主权这一象征体现出各个国家独立和发展的最高利益受到了前所未有的冲击和挑战。

International economic,国际经济主权,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

In the international political landscape diversity and the development of world economic integration process, the national sovereignty purves acknowledges in the best interest of the national independence and develop by the unprecedented impact and challenge, national sovereignty and economic development has become a pair of contradictory unity, how to promote the country's economic development and to keep and maintain the stability of national sovereignty, is facing the developing countries an imminent dilemma. This paper tries to make a preliminary discussion on this problem.

Economic sovereignty refers to the permanent sovereignty over all wealth and natural resources, including ownership, right to use and right to dispose. It also includes the right of states to enjoy full independence and freedom from outside interference in all economic affairs within and outside their own countries.

After the end of the second world war, many oppressed and weak ethnic groups in colonies and semi-colonies around the world have been freed from colonial shackles, striving for national liberation and national independence and enjoying political independence. However, at the time of their independence, they were often forced to enter into treaties or agreements that agreed to preserve many of the vested interests and preferential treatment of colonial rulers or suzerainty, and even remained in a subordinate or subsidiary position. Practice has proved that if we do not strive for economic independence and economic sovereignty, political independence and sovereignty as soon as possible, we will lose and gain again one day. Political sovereignty is the premise of economic sovereignty, and economic sovereignty is the guarantee of political sovereignty. Therefore, the persistent demands of developing countries and the international community as a whole have led to a clear determination by the international community that states enjoy independent economic sovereignty.

In December 1962, at the seventeenth session of the United Nations general assembly, the declaration on permanent sovereignty over natural resources was adopted, which formally established the basic principle of countries' permanent sovereignty over natural resources in their own situations. The permanent declaration of sovereignty presupposes respect for the sovereignty of the host country over its natural resources as a prerequisite for all international economic exchanges and trade and economic activities between the north and the south, and establishes the basic principle of respect for the sovereignty of states over the disposal of their wealth and natural resources. The above claims in the developing world, however, was criticized by the developed countries some jurists, that the developing countries such as what are the requirements for "lost their obsessions of sovereignty", to the so-called "international interests", "modern economic life needs", tried to continue to get their hands on the development of China's natural resources, its reasoning logic, is nothing more than "I I enjoy", your I a monopoly, its greed is very obvious. Therefore, safeguarding the permanent sovereignty over the country's natural resources is a prerequisite for promoting economic development and cannot be shaken at any time.

The declaration and the charter have repeatedly stressed that the host country enjoys complete and permanent sovereignty over all economic activities within its own territory and has highlighted the right to supervise and manage foreign capital and transnational corporations within its territory. Developing countries should take collective action to develop an international code of conduct for transnational corporations in order to prevent transnational corporations from interfering in the internal affairs of host countries. In addition, the host country should formulate domestic laws and implement them. In the process of collecting and utilizing foreign capital to promote its economic development, it should not only protect the legitimate rights and interests of foreign investors, but also require them to fully respect the economic sovereignty of the host country, earnestly abide by the laws and regulations of the host country and accept strict supervision.

In accordance with the principle of state sovereignty, the nationalization of a country to foreign investors within its territory is an act of a sovereign state. According to the views of western colonial powers, host governments in underdeveloped regions to the property of foreign investors within the territory, only protection of obligation, no infringement of rights, to the infringement, constitute the basis of the so-called "international illegal ACTS," capitalist country government has just the state responsibility, the right shall be investigated for the host country to protect overseas Chinese name, can even that part had. In contrast, developing countries have always advocated in foreign capital, the requisition only according to the provisions of the law of host country, compensation, so as to maintain their own political sovereignty and economic sovereignty after intense debate, finally sure each country may, when necessary, the economic sovereign rights of the requisition, and ruled out the western developed countries according to their traditional idea in the requisition, the compensation issues for developing countries imposed by the so-called "fair standard constraints of international law".

The development of international economic sovereignty is the result of long and arduous efforts of developing countries. The equal status of emerging developing countries in the international community is often despised, infringed upon and trampled on by power politics and hegemonists. Developing countries increasingly feel that formal equality masks substantial inequality. Therefore, developing countries began to use the principle of equity and mutual benefit to adjust international political and economic relations, and to update, enrich and develop the traditional concept of equality. However, the developed countries still want to use their absolute advantages in economic strength to conduct extremely unequal exchanges with the poor, weak and economically disadvantaged countries in history, paying in form but not in equality. Proceeding from the overall strategic situation of the world and the interests of developed countries themselves, the establishment of equitable interests between developed countries and developing countries is conducive to the relaxation of those of developed countries and world peace and stability. A comprehensive look at the development of the four lom agreements shows that the mutually beneficial cooperation between developing countries and developed countries is dynamic.

However, the lom agreement style of north-south cooperation has not fundamentally changed the very unequal and unfair economic relations between the two sides. Thus it can be seen that the lom agreement has made initial important achievements in realizing north-south cooperation to improve the north-south unequal relations and correct the serious injustice of the world towards the international public distribution of wealth. But it is still a long and arduous journey to achieve the overall goal of north-south cooperation to establish a new international economic order.

At the same time, economic cooperation among developing countries, namely south-south cooperation, is playing an increasingly important role in improving the status of developing countries in the international community and enhancing economic sovereignty. For example, in the mid-1970s, the oil exporting countries of the third world united and took up oil weapons. With the strong support of the non-oil producing countries in the third world, they fought against the international oil monopoly capital and finally regained the key power of oil price decision-making. It can be seen from this that the establishment of a new international economic order will make progress step by step.

In particular, since the 1980s, the world economy has undergone fundamental changes. Almost all countries have been incorporated into the operating system of the world economy. As former United Nations secretary-general boutros boutros-ghali declared in his address to the United Nations in October 1992, "an era of genuine globalization has come". On the face of it, economic globalization seems to be a win-win game for both developed and developing countries. However, when the veil of economic globalization is lifted, it can be seen that developed countries are always the biggest winners. From beginning to end, western countries have controlled the process of global economic development, influenced the formulation and implementation of various economic game rules and constantly eroded the economic sovereignty of developing countries.

Main outside into the international economic mechanism in the process of globalization of the structure, mechanism and participate in the international economy means the countries in the world market for it to seek opportunity and pay the price, the main performance: first, the first participation mechanism required to accept the current international economic system, which means that one country not only in the domestic set up a corresponding market economy, and to all the system and the international system does not adapt elements gradually comprehensive renovation, especially closely related to the international economic system of foreign capital, financial system, tax system, a country in determining the country's economic system when there is no sufficient freedom.

A large number of game rules make a country enjoy the benefits of fair competition and mutual benefit in the international market. Such as the agreements of WTO members were required to adjust modify in domestic economic system and policy, the agreement on trade-related investment measures, members were required to phase out of the domestic foreign law about the local content requirements, trade balance and foreign exchange balance and export ratio requirements may distort the provisions of the trade relationship between the implementation of the "law of produce agreement", the members were required to pledge to cut all kinds of direct or indirect policy-related subsidies for agricultural products.

As a result of participating in the international economic system, a country's opening to the outside world has some weakening effects. For example, introducing large amounts of foreign capital can solve the problem of lack of funds. According to the international rules of operation due to foreign investment and is subject to domestic law and to reduce the degree of government management, the government's macro control has dropped, the diversification of a country's domestic enterprises property rights form the country is difficult to define the scope of national industry, protect the national industry of the tradition of the content of the economic sovereignty was greatly weakened, in addition to the height of the development of information and communication technologies to control, a certain extent, weakening the country's economic sovereignty.

On the surface of economic globalization, it seems to be a win-win game for developed and developing countries. However, when the veil of economic globalization is lifted, developed countries are the big winners. The globalization of the economy does not change the centralism of power in Europe and the United States. Globalization is essentially westernized and americanized, however. Developed countries have never restricted or sacrificed their economic sovereignty. On the contrary, they have strengthened their economic sovereignty at all stages. And constantly challenging the economic sovereignty of developing countries.

In the course of economic globalization, developed countries have never tolerated their own votes. A little bit of sovereignty. They never want their sovereignty to be restricted by other countries. Every time they sign an international treaty and join an international organization, they will conduct a comprehensive and in-depth study on the impact of such behavior on the sovereignty of a country. The decision to participate is in the fundamental interests of the country. Take the United States' 1994 sovereignty debate as an example. Before joining the WTO, the United States had a great discussion on the impact of WTO accession on national sovereignty in the theoretical, political and commercial circles, and the U.S. congress held hearings for many times, and did not approve the accession until it was confirmed that it would not undermine the sovereignty. The establishment of free trade in North America, as well as the signing of the north American free trade agreement, shows that developing countries fear loss of economic sovereignty.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, western countries have challenged sovereignty three times. After world war I, we advocated the abolition of sovereignty. Because developing countries get in the way of the colonial expansion abroad, so want to cancel the sovereign essentially cancel the sovereignty of developing countries, from sovereignty after world war ii, because the post-war new independent developing countries carried out in the '50 s and' 60 s vigorous, maintain economic sovereignty movement, make them feel nervous. After the end of the cold war, the claim of restricting and weakening sovereignty was advocated because developing countries realized in the long struggle that abandoning sovereign rights means abandoning the right to subsistence and development. Actively and actively strive for and safeguard economic sovereignty in international cooperation at all levels. In particular, the rise of the asia-pacific has in fact posed a strong challenge to the centuries-old European centralism. Developed countries are afraid to lose their strategic advantages and active status.

Basic countermeasures of developing countries to safeguard national economic sovereignty. There are always two sides to everything: on the one hand, as the French scholar bardhorn said, "international judicial precedents prove that sovereignty is the basis of the international legal order, and the starting point of the current international legal order is the principle of national sovereignty." Therefore, it is a rational choice for the international community to build an international legal order based on national sovereignty. On the other hand, the principle of "global economic integration" has a very implicit soft constraint, that is, the participants must transfer certain national economic sovereignty as the precondition. This condition is usually state-owned assets or national welfare. Chinese people are generally familiar with the story of "paying tribute to marry a woman". It may be justified to do so as a last resort. But hide your light and hide your strength, so that you may rise again. Therefore, seize the moment, rise to the challenge and "dance with the Wolf" is the current strategy.

Actively participate in the globalization process, seize opportunities and meet challenges. Globalization is an inevitable trend in the development of world history. The biggest advantage of economic globalization is to realize the optimal allocation of world resources, which provides conditions for countries to get rid of the shackles of resources and markets to the maximum extent. The development of the economic globalization brings the international division of labor, industrial transfer and the flow of capital, technology and other factors of production, that make up the domestic capital for developing countries, factors of production, using the advantages of little pay, swiftly realize industry evolution, technological progress, institutional innovation and economic development is very beneficial, however, globalization brings to developing countries new economic hegemony and real threat, has harmed the country's sovereignty and the normal development of the economy. Therefore, developing countries must adopt a prudent attitude and correct decision-making, seek advantages and avoid disadvantages, and safeguard national sovereignty.

In the new situation of economic globalization, developing countries should be particularly bold in upholding and applying their economic sovereignty. In order to take advantage of opportunities and mobilize all kinds of foreign economic resources to serve the construction of China, we must pay the necessary price, that is, on the basis of full autonomy, make appropriate self-restraint on some of our economic power and economic rights and interests. This "degree" is: must adhere to the principle of sovereignty assignment and reciprocity, sharing is the premise of assignment, no sharing can be transferred. It has always maintained its economic independence, as a pillar of strength.

It is advisable to strengthen south-south cooperation and adopt effective forms to realize regional collectivization and regional economic integration. The experience of economic integration of developed countries in Western Europe in the 20th century is worth learning from. From the ec to the European Union, from a customs union, a common agricultural policy to the economic integration, western European countries had on the problem of the transfer of rights in the state sovereignty made a painful choice, their combined enhances the ability of international competition and autonomy in international affairs, and will become a very powerful in the multi-polar world, the ten asean countries saw today, if not relying on the association of south-east Asian nations the carrier, the role of them in the asia-pacific region would not be so powerful as it is today.

We will strengthen cooperation with developed countries and draw on the achievements of all civilizations in human society. Efforts should be made to raise the level of economic development of developing countries and enhance their strength in safeguarding sovereignty. Both the north and the south face confrontation and struggle, as well as interdependence and cooperation. It is foreseeable that in the future, global north-south relations will be replaced by inter-regional and intra-group north-south relations. Developing countries should seize opportunities, develop themselves, gradually change, rely on and unilaterally rely on each other, as well as the unequal status of cooperation between developed countries.

It should be pointed out that in developing countries participate in international economic globalization and regional collectivization in the process, must proceed from its national conditions, according to actual condition, the policy is the only way to gain a foothold in the competition, develop steadily, keep characteristics, to promote the development of its economy at the same time, more to maintain and safeguard China's sovereignty independence, complete equality.

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