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作业代写:Sartre's freedom and responsibility

2018-05-14 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Sartre's freedom and responsibility,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了萨特的自由与责任。萨特作为20世纪法国著名的存在主义哲学、文学的代表人物,他建构了自己的文学哲学体系。在萨特哲学中,他反复强调人是自由的,在这里自由已经成了一个本体论的范畴。后来萨特在提出“自由选择”哲学观念后,在以后的逐渐实践和印证过程中,但发现自由选择会带来了道德本质的不确定性。所以与其说自由选择观是一种严谨高深的哲学,倒不如说一种痛苦的,真实的而又不甘的向往的哲学。

Sartre,萨特,essay代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

Sartre's view of liberty seems to date back to his childhood. Part of the reason for his deep feelings about freedom lies in his unfettered childhood. "Since childhood, I have felt free. The idea of freedom has developed in me, and it has no ambiguity, contradictions, and abstractions. It's becoming more and more clear to me. I have a deep sense of freedom from birth to death. However at this time of freedom is just a child no one bundle, be loved one as a pet at home the little prince, one day when he realized that "everyone is free," after the "because of their freedom to the superiority of" disappeared.

Later the theoretical system of freedom, Sartre "does not mean that people understanding of necessity or conquest of the forces of nature, it is the individual existence of the extension of" subjectivity ", is a pure freedom of the will." Since freedom is a life and have it, one is "being thrown into the freedom, so we can neither from ourselves nor in the outside help, therefore in this kind of freedom, people still is full of trouble and terrible.

Human freedom is man's existence precedes essence, man is made, which determines the person cannot put himself has become the essence of a person or their personality is due to genetic or the surrounding environment. Therefore, people always have to make choices in their lives, and constantly choose the kind of person they want to be with their own actions, thoughts and feelings. In any situation, people are free to choose. Sartre emphasized that freedom is freedom of choice, not freedom of choice. Even if you don't choose, you choose not to. Since this choice is absolute freedom, there is no universal morality and any objective conditions to limit this freedom.

But Sartre's absolute freedom of choice in the whole society has its contradictions even in a certain group. "Here I see the paradox: because as a society, the world must have some sort of system, and my freedom should be complete." It was obvious that Sartre himself had seen the contradiction between his liberal views and the society, and thus further put forward the responsibility. The outbreak of war also made a profound change in Sartre's understanding of freedom. The appearance of a series of situations has forced Sartre to think about the relationship between freedom and circumstance. "People find themselves in an organized situation where they can't get rid of it. His choices involve the entire human race, and he can't avoid it. "No matter how he chooses, given his present situation, it is impossible for him not to take full responsibility." I think, in the eyes of Sartre, the will of a person is completely free, so doing any choice when he is not subject to any constraints, although in a society there is a series of ethical standards and legal norms, but does not affect the absolute freedom of choice, but some thing can be sure: you must assume responsibility for the choices you've made. If your choice violates the moral standards or legal norms of the society, then moral condemnation and legal punishment are your responsibilities. But we can't because you were criticized or punishment will think people are not free, is not free to choose, because the condemnation and punishment merely is a result of your freedom of choice, is your responsibility for the choices you've made, the responsibility and freedom as it is absolute. As Sartre himself said, "this absolute responsibility is not accepted elsewhere, it is merely a logical requirement for the outcome of our freedom." To some extent, Sartre's concept of responsibility makes up for the lack of absolute freedom, and further develops the concept of freedom to make it more complete.

Sartre has a high profile of the relationship between people in his play "confinement," which is hell. In his view, the existence of others is a hindrance to our freedom, and vice versa, the existence of the self is a hindrance to the freedom of others. "Should not believe that a 'let' and tolerance of ethics is more respect other people's freedom: once I exist, in fact I will give the freedom of others to set up a line, I am the boundaries, and every one of my plan Outlines the boundaries around other people: kindness, let, tolerance - or all abstained attitude - is my own self-discipline and constraints with others pledge his plan. A universal tolerance for others is to force others into a world of tolerance. This is the possibility, in principle, of taking their brave resistance, perseverance, and independence. "And respect other people's freedom is meaningless, even if we can assume that respect the plot of this freedom, we 'others' each attitude are also for we're going to respect the freedom of a trampled. The extreme attitude of utter indifference before them is no solution; We face has been thrown into someone else's world, we are the limitation of the freedom of others, without anything, and even suicide, and can't change the original situation, regardless of our activity is what kind of, in fact, we are always in such a world to complete these activities." This seems to be the social absurdity, the existence of helpless. We cannot live alone in this world without others, but the presence of others is a barrier to our own freedom. As long as others exist, it is superfluous to others and threatens the freedom of others. Can we say that people are not "free" at this point? Of course the freedom here is different from what Sartre said about freedom.

However, "Sartre believes that although the impression of" confinement "on the surface is that people cannot be free in a hellish environment restricted by others. But what he's really trying to reveal to people is that we have the freedom to choose, through our choices, through our actions, that we can still be free. Sartre also provided his own understanding of "other people is hell" in a 1965 speech for "the confinement".

In the existentialism is a humanitarian, he said: "I must through others to achieve some of my truth, others for my existence is necessary, as well as for I know my own is essential". Here we see the Sartre about others gave two completely opposite role: on the one hand, the existence of others that constitutes the obstacles of my freedom, in this sense, the others are restrictions on the freedom of a person or even negative; On the other hand, a person's freedom must be realized through the relationship with others. A completely isolated individual is not likely to survive, and of course there is no freedom. "In this sense, other people have a double meaning to one's freedom: both limitation and condition, both negation and negation, which is the higher level of affirmation." But is Sartre's view contradictory or is it only so that his system of thought is more complete? Different scholars have their own opinions. In the view of this article, Sartre has found his shortcomings and contradictions in the process of developing his own ideological system, so he has been constantly revising his freedom and other ideas. As an intellectual with a sense of justice, social responsibility and independence, on the one hand, it advocates the personality and freedom of human dignity. On the other hand, it cannot be seen that too much emphasis on individual freedom will lead to the loss of social responsibility, and therefore the individual's responsibility to the society is always emphasized. This is the paradox and dilemma that Sartre finally failed to get rid of.

Although in some scholar's view, Sartre's thoughts with extreme existence contradiction, but on one is free, people want to be what kind of people must through people intend to transform itself, people can only according to their own intend to ourselves on these views, and has the positive practical significance. Sartre had always opposed the idea of inevitability, and he believed that the freedom of man was bound to be bound by the concept of necessity. In his mind, necessity, determinism, fatalism, fatalism, god, god, etc., are all different versions of the meaning, which are all restraints and negative things. We know the human being can take control of your own destiny, in addition to the existence and nothing is born with freedom, does not exist the so-called fatalism in the world, as long as the action, there is hope, in addition to action without any hope. "Cowards and heroes are not born, existentialists say, a coward who turns himself into a coward, a hero who turns himself into a hero. And there is always the possibility that a coward can pull himself together and stop being a coward, and a hero can no longer be a hero. This positive attitude in the accidental failure is extremely important, we have the right to choose again, has the possibility to stage a comeback, our nature is created by our own, we need to do what kind of person is determined and put into practice by ourselves.

Since we can decide what we do, we should be brave enough to take responsibility for our decisions. When we conflict with others, they should be more from themselves to find the reason, self review of self-examination, in this case, the others will no longer be our "hell", and the proper response Sartre about others another heavy meaning, namely "for and we know themselves, others is the most important factors of us", because it is others that led us to take responsibility, forces us to reflect on and further to know yourself.

Sartre after the proposed "free choice" philosophy, in the later gradually in the process of practice and confirm found freedom of choice brings the uncertainty of moral nature, it is to his very trouble problem, is also why he finally did not reach what he said his "absolute freedom". The idea of free choice is not so much a rigorous philosophy as a painful, real and unwilling philosophy.

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