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美国作业代写:Kant's teleology

2018-01-16 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Kant's teleology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了康德目的论。目的论最早是由亚里士多德提出。他认为,“telos”是宇宙中每一个事物各自趋向的“终点”,而事物朝向“终点”的运动是有助于提升该事物的幸福或促进它更好地生存的状态。康德的“目的”概念也深受亚里士多德的影响。总的来说,康德目的论是调节性的而非构成性的,是内在目的论而非外在目的论,是先验目的论而非经验目的论。目的论是贯穿康德批判哲学始终的,并且占据十分重要的位置。

Kant's teleology,康德目的论,essay代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

In his first critique, "Critique of Pure Reason", Kant points out that philosophy is the science of the relationship between all knowledge and the fundamental purpose of human rationality. The third critique, the Critique of Judgment, is about teleology. It can be said that Teleology runs through Kant's critical philosophy and occupies a very important position. What is Kant's teleology and what are its basic characteristics? That's the first thing we need to figure out.

Teleology was first proposed by Aristotle, the ancient Greek philosopher. He believes that "Telos" is the end of each object in the universe, and that the movement toward the "finish line" is conducive to the improvement of the well-being of the thing or the promotion of its better survival status. In Aristotle, Finalcause is almost equivalent to "Telos", which is often used as a synonym. Aristotle distinguishes between the four causes of the movement of things, namely material, form, motive and purpose, in which form, power and purpose "can often be combined, because form and purpose are the same, and the source of movement change is the same as the two." As for the relationship between "purpose" and "form", Aristotle further talks about: "Since nature has two meanings, one is material, the other is form;" The latter is the end; the rest is for the end, then the form is the reason. Kant's concept of "purpose" is deeply influenced by Aristotle, which can be seen from his definition of the concept of "purpose" and "purposeful". Kant said: "Since the concept of an object is a basis for the reality of the object at the same time, it is called the purpose, and the same thing and the kind of things that can only be possible in accordance with the objective of the Concord, is called the form of the physical unity of the objective." In short, the so-called "purpose" is the "realistic basis" for an object, which is not outside the object but in the concept of the object. The "realistic basis" here is equivalent to what Aristotle says about the state of well-being of things, or to the state of promoting things better.

However, Kant's teleology also has some characteristics different from the previous teleology. First of all, Kant's teleology is regulated rather than constituted. The three basic concepts of pure rationality presupposition are "purpose", which is the presupposition of rationality for the construction of experiential knowledge. Kant said: "This presupposition, if it is constitutive, is far beyond the scope of the observations so far that we can reasonably reach;" Because what can be seen from it is that this presupposition is nothing more than a regulatory principle of reason, in order to draw on the idea of reason for the purpose of the Supreme world reason, and as if this reason is the highest of reason, as the most intelligent intention is the cause of all things, to achieve the unity of the highest system. "This means that the idea of pure rationality is not used to construct specific knowledge, but rather to guide the construction of specific knowledge, so that these ideas are regulated rather than constituted."

Secondly, Kant's teleology is the inner teleology rather than the external teleology. Kant's Critique of judgment is divided into "critique of Aesthetic judgment" and "Critique of Teleological judgment", which discuss "natural beauty" and "Nature purpose" respectively. On the teleology of Nature, Kant further distinguishes it from the "relative goal" and the "intrinsic purpose". The former is a purposeful assertion that the existence of a thing is a means of other things, such as the existence of grass for cattle to eat, the existence of cattle is to eat meat, and so on; The latter is a purposeful proposition, the existence of a thing itself is the purpose, such as a work of art itself embodies its own value. Kant believes that his teleology belongs to the latter, namely the inner teleology.

Third, Kant's teleology is transcendental teleology rather than empirical teleology. In the first critique, Kant distinguishes between "general idea" and "Transcendental idea". The former is an empirical concept, and Plato's ideas such as "table" and "stone" belong to this type. The latter is the idea that Kant understands, which includes "freedom", "soul" and "God". It needs to be pointed out that the transcendental idea is a priori, but it is different from the prior category, and the transcendental category deals directly with the experience, and the transcendental idea can only deal with experience indirectly, that is, it can only play a moderating role and cannot play a role of formation. Moreover, the transcendental idea itself can only be used as the regulative principle of empirical knowledge, and when we use them outside of the experience base, we will make a "transcendental" error.

Since Kant's teleology has the regulative nature, intrinsic and transcendental characteristics, then this teleology inevitably hit the "human" brand, rather than the goal of the past as the objective of externalization, manifested, become independent of the "human" or even the human mind ability or function of teleology.

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