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留学生作业代写:Australia's policy of assimilating indigenous people

2017-11-16 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Australia's policy of assimilating indigenous people,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了澳大利亚对土著人的同化政策。1931年,当澳大利亚在取得外交独立权之后,澳大利亚继承了对土著的“同化政策”。面对急剧增长的混血土著人,白人认为只有将混血土著儿交由有教养的白人家庭抚养,他们血液里的肮脏基因才会得到改善。不管混血土著是否愿意,他们将会被白人社会所吸收,接受白人的教育。

indigenous,澳大利亚土著,essay代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

In 1788, the British set foot on the mysterious land of Australia. But the natives lived there for tens of thousands of years before the British set foot on the land. There is an irreconcilable contradiction between indigenous people and British people because of the competition for land, the differences in living habits and the lack of communication. According to religion, indigenous people believe that land is sacred and cannot be privately held, while the British need lots of land to meet their own development needs. And because of the language's differences, native and British people are isolated from each other. The indigenous people believed that the white-skinned British were the soul of their ancestors, while the British thought that the indigenous people were uncivilized and inferior. As the conflict intensified, the British adopted a policy of "genocide" and "apartheid" on the indigenous people, aiming to destroy the indigenous people and establish a "white Australian society".

After world war ii, especially after world war ii, the world aroused people's desire to equal human rights, and was strongly opposed to discrimination and inequality. In the face of international pressure, as well as the specific national conditions, Australia had to take a new policy - assimilation policy, under the condition of protect the rights of indigenous people live, destroy the aboriginal culture, establish a so-called civilized society, but its essence still think native cultural genocide policy. Strong racism is an important characteristic of assimilation policy.

The formation and main contents of "assimilation policy"

The "assimilation policy" began in 1926 and ended in 1971. Australia inherited its "assimilation policy" to indigenous people when Australia gained diplomatic independence in 1931. Because at the time of white supremacy racist views are still dominant in Australia, many white people think native is low race, while the existence of the natives will defile white nobility and purity. In 1930, the indigenous population fell from 300,000 to 60,000, but there were as many as 24,881 indigenous people.

In the face of a rapidly growing mix of indigenous people, whites believe that the dirty genes in their blood will improve only if the mixed-race natives are brought up by educated white families. In 1937, federal and state officials in charge of indigenous affairs agreed. They believe that purebred indigenous people will eventually become self-destructive, and that the real danger is an increasing number of mixed-race people. In order to civilize the indigenous people and guide them towards a modern society, regardless of whether the mixed-race indigenous people are willing, they will be absorbed by the white society and accept the white education. The meeting also marks an increase in Australia's policy towards indigenous assimilation. The assimilation of indigenous people can be divided into the following aspects: the stolen generation. Tens of thousands of aboriginal children were forcibly taken from their parents, were sent to white families, or asylum, but these children in the white family and the authorities promised to "civilized, educated in different ways, indigenous children were forced to instill the white culture, poor living conditions. "I grew up alone, I was a black girl but I was in the white world. Trying to make me be bleached I hate them, but they cannot take away our for eons dream "this paragraph from the members of the stolen generation in a word, let's see it brings the enormous harm. Strict restrictions on indigenous movements. The Australian government has imposed strict controls on indigenous people in order to promote assimilation policies. They were driven to residential areas, where they had no right to drink and vote, no right to move freely, not to mention property rights. Improve the status of indigenous people. Politically. Strict limits on indigenous people at the same time, in order to quell the aboriginal resistance of love and the domestic part of the white dissatisfaction with the policy, the Australian government also issued by some laws to improve the natives. In March 1949, the Australian government has approved the new federal election list, allowing new south wales, Victoria and south Australia and Tasmania aborigines have the meeting to vote. In 1962, the right to vote expanded to the indigenous peoples of Queensland, western Australia and the northern territories. In terms of social welfare, the Australian government established the indigenous employment development commission to increase the employment of indigenous people. At the same time, the living standards of indigenous people have been greatly improved along with changes in the laws such as the national health and pension insurance scheme.

Knowing "what is an assimilation policy?" After that, we will focus on the analysis of "why is the assimilation policy produced?" . What factors contribute to the assimilation of the aboriginal population in Australia, which is the result of domestic or international pressure? The causes of assimilation policy can be divided into domestic factors and international factors.

Firstly, domestic factors can be divided into: racism, social and cultural factors, and economic development needs.

Racism. What is racism? Levistrauss defines racism as the following four aspects: "one, in the inheritance of one party, the intellectual ability and the moral inclination to the other, there is a correlation. The inheritance of these abilities and tendencies is Shared by all members of some human groups. These groups, known as "RACES", are graded according to the quality of their genetic property. These differences have led to the so-called "racial" command, exploitation of other RACES, and the possibility of destroying it. The reasons for racism in Australia are as follows: first, ignorance creates estrangement, and estrangement becomes a hotbed of racism. As is known to all, Australia is a colony of the British empire, and Britain has a great influence on Australia. The 18th century, Britain take the lead in the industrial revolution, the comprehensive national strength has increased, as the industrial revolution have spread to other European countries, Europe as the center of the world, actively colonial expansion abroad. Many whites believe they are "excellent" and "superior". As a result, they tend to be white in terms of other people. When the British arrived in Australia, the British thought that the aborigines were undoubtedly at the lowest stage of society in the face of almost naked, the indigenous people of the day. Similarly, the aborigines do not understand why the British must be wearing heavy, heavy clothing in hot weather. J the rich would shows due to ignorance misunderstanding: "native habits and characteristics of unique prompted me to their feelings of disgust, the mood is to use time and daily communication can eliminate". And a series of pseudo-scientific theories also promoted the development of racism. The white people of "noble blood" are very afraid of having contact with black people and wild men, and marriage can lead to the purity of blood. Therefore, the white people viewed the black and wild people in a negative manner, and put them in biochemistry. More determined that their flaws are unobtainable, and that a certain race will be "tainted" for generations.

So when the British facing and their different aboriginal people, in order to prevent "Anglo - Saxon" good pedigree is polluted, they want to avoid contact with listening to the natives, the failure of his policy of genocide and isolation, they thought of will have a genetic defect of the natives, especially with white aborigines into white society to improve their genes, and to ensure that when the British had to deal with the natives, able to maintain their own noble. Third, legalization of indigenous exploitation. Economic exploitation was the main thing in the British exploitation of the indigenous people. In order to legitimise its exploitation, the British preached that indigenous people were unbuilt and unreasonably resourced to optimize the allocation of ethnic groups. They wasted the precious land that god had given him, under which the British would take over the land and see that it would make sense to make the most of it. The misinterpretation of social Darwinism makes white racism more rampant. Social Darwinism emphasizes the progress of society, a renowned British social Darwinism, spencer once said: "if a race of invalid habitual survival and reproduction, and the average energy of the race will decline, and... If the conditions of survival are not met, the weak ones will die, and the rest will be able to meet the conditions of survival, which will satisfy the average adaptability of the race to the living conditions." And social Darwinism emphasizes competition. Liam. Sam once said: "the survival competition is the core of social life characteristics, if someone is on the side of the road collapsed, it shouldn't be a shame thing, people who want to struggle with nature, to endure a lot of hard work" the likelihood for the ailing racist belief that their society is after a hard struggle with other society evolved, and in fact caused by white slaughter, alcohol, STD native population decline because of indigenous society is low, is not enough for its competitiveness. Under the influence of the above conditions, many Australian white have extremely strong racist views, think oneself is better than that of the natives, in the treatment of the natives and starting from the social environment of the natives. The assimilation policy which aims to safeguard the superiority of white society is also popular with the people.

Social and cultural factors. In terms of social and cultural factors, cultural center theory and religion have a great influence on the generation of assimilation policy.

Religious influence, namely original crime thought and religious exclusion. First of all, original sin thought. There is a deep inferiority complex in Australia. This may seem contradictory to their arrogance, but it is in the context of Australia. First British came to Australia to the convicts, their social status in the UK is extremely low, but when they came to Australia, waiting for their is not a new world, but another purgatory. Poor natural conditions, hard living conditions, and conflict with indigenous people have made them feel abandoned. And the religious Christianity that they believe in has the original sin that the Christian belief that Adam and eve ate the forbidden fruit and disobeyed god's will, was "the glory of god". This sin is passed on to posterity and becomes the root of all human sin, disaster, suffering and death. A man is born and is a sinner before god. Under the influence of this doctrine, many britons who have come to live in Australia have become more convinced that they have come to Australia because of their SINS. This led to them in the face of other ethnic groups, there is actually a inferiority and unease, in order to conceal his unease at this moment, the powerful British empire became their lifeline, they declared themselves or their ancestors came from the British empire, has a superior Anglo - Saxon descent, has a brilliant culture, in order to maintain their false pride, they will surely not allow other cultures to challenge the British culture. Religious exclusivity. Moses said in the ten commandments: "do not believe in any other god except god. Not to be carved, to bow, to serve any idol. "it shows that Christianity has a strong exclusive color. Under the strong influence of religion, its believers must have a sense of rejection of other religions and cultures, and they reject indigenous and indigenous art as alien. Therefore, it is especially correct to maintain the rights of indigenous people and to eradicate the assimilation policies of indigenous cultures.

Cultural center theory. In the middle of the 19th century, most of Australia's immigrants came from Europe, with the British in the largest proportion. So Australian culture is largely influenced by British culture. Once the world's great powers, Britain has a glorious history, the splendid achievements will make the British people have strong national self-confidence, pride, and even lead to the emergence of national hubris psychological. They see Britain's moral standards, lifestyles and traditions as the best in the world. Thus, when white culture meets aboriginal culture, the superiority of British culture makes Australian white people form cultural centrism - belief in the superiority of an ethnic culture. So they believe that in an elegant English culture, the aborigines will be transformed and refined and intelligent. The assimilation policy has been a boon to indigenous people who craved "civilization, wisdom".

Economic factors, the need for Labour contributed to the assimilation of indigenous people. Australia is sparsely populated, but after world war two, the number of casualties in Australia to 102029, reduced Labour in the face of the post-war ruins in Australia, the Australian authorities don't want to have to find his way to solve the problem of shortage of labor. From Europe before the war, most of Australia's population, but the two world war ii, due to the high casualties of war, of the demand for labor in the the development of its economy after the war, immigrants from Europe. At the same time, the Pacific islands labor act of 1901, the immigration restriction act, the postal telecommunications act limited the immigrants of colored people. In order to meet the demand for labor, the Turkish labor force was taken into account. The Australian government in aboriginal policy improvement "is not so much out of humanitarian considerations, rather than because of cattle and other enterprises increased need for labor, from Melanesia transported into the workers as early as in the past ten years in the 20th century has been banned, and from Asia into the workers and greatly restricted. The world war greatly reduced the existing Labour force. That is why companies and ranchers have to pay attention to preserving the reserves of indigenous people. In the face of interests, so-called ethnic and cultural differences no longer focus on profits. The maximization of profits has become the most important thing, and the capitalists have chosen the latter in the face of expensive white workers and the extremely low wage demands of indigenous workers. Economic base determines the superstructure, when the economy needs to the natives, will have to provide convenience for the politics, if the indigenous assimilation can let more indigenous people come to cities meet the needs of labor, and can solve the problem of the survival of indigenous peoples, calm of the resistance of aborigines gradually rising, the government, what is there against it?

The international situation. The international situation has forced Australia to change its policy towards indigenous people. After world war ii, there was a wave of opposition to oppression and discrimination worldwide. Promulgated in 1948, the United Nations universal declaration of human rights, in the second ZhangGui manifesto: "everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this declaration, without distinction of any kind, as to race, color, sex, language, religion, here, or other opinion or social origin, property or other status.". People are looking to minority and indigenous people who are politically and economically marginalized. In 1952 the United Nations general assembly general committee will be Australian aboriginal policy with apartheid in South Africa's notorious, some African countries even call Australia "Asia South Africa". The poor handling of indigenous issues has undermined Australia's international reputation and severely affected Australia's exchanges with other countries. In the cold war, "when Australia was cheering for America against the Soviet union as a partner of the United States, it found itself in an awkward position for the injustice of the indigenous people. It is also influenced by the reputation of racism with the northern neighbor. So the Australian government urgently needs to improve its international image. Now that is characterized by the genocide of genocide, isolation policy has violated the human rights, then when maintaining the indigenous people's right to exist on the surface, but actually think the assimilation of ethnic cultural genocide policy can not only maintain Australia's international reputation, and can keep the white society "Snow White", it is not hard to understand why we assimilation policy of international.

Rome was not built in a day, and the emergence of Australia's assimilation policy was also the result of overlapping and integration of various causes. But there is no denying that racism plays an important role. Therefore, in the proper handling of ethnic relations, China should absorb the experiences and lessons of Australia's attempt to assimilate the indigenous people, and should not treat the minority affairs with the thought of the han nationality. But it is impossible to put a few people outside the country's affairs. Inassimilation, not exclusion, is the only correct way.

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