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美国作业代写:Research on Information visualization

2017-11-01 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Research on Information visualization,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了信息可视化。如今,我们可以将可视化技术运用到信息工作中,将信息精准变化为视觉模式,便于我们更加直观的查看数据。由于电脑技术高速发展,此时数据处理工作也迎来了全新的发展局面,其处理能力明显提升,而且方式也明显增加,此时使用人能够随意地查看自己所需的各种信息内容,目前该技术的应用范围非常广。

Information visualization,信息可视化,essay代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Today's society is a society with rapid development of economy and technology, and all kinds of advanced technology are applied to production and life activities. Visualization technology is a very significant embodiment. Through information visualization, we can more intuitive analysis of data, at this time users can very intuitive view of the data, and then know the hidden relationship among them. Now the technology is widely used, in particular, mainly used in the following aspects: Data mining Visualization, network data visualization, social visualization, traffic visualization, text visualization, biomedical visualization and so on.

Visualization technology was first used at the end of the last century, through its rational use of information work, we can change the precise information into visual mode, can facilitate us to more intuitive view of the data, at this time the user can be very intuitive analysis of data, so that we know that the hidden various links, In the past it was clear that this was impossible. After entering the new period of development, because of the rapid development of computer technology, data processing work has ushered in a new development situation, its processing capacity significantly improved, and the way is also significantly increased, at this time, users can freely view their own needs of various information content, the application of the technology is very wide.

In the information visualization model presented by card, we can divide the process into three concrete steps, namely: the conversion of raw data to datasheet, the conversion of data table to visual structure, and the conversion of visual structure to view.

According to the above model, we can divide the visualization activity into several steps as follows.

In particular, the acquisition of information in advance to facilitate people to understand, easy to input into the module. The pretreatment content includes data format and standardization, Data transformation technology, data compression and decompression. Special processing is also needed for special data, such as dimensionality reduction.

By drawing we can transform the data into concrete graphics. Specifically in the drawing of the time must carefully analyze the use of human needs, and then combined with the technology to reflect.

The so-called display, in particular, is to draw the graph, according to the user's provisions for its reasonable output. At the same time should also use the user feedback content reasonable transmission to the software, only in this way can truly realize human-computer interaction.

According to the classification of Shneiderman, information visualization data is divided into the following categories: one-dimensional data, two-dimensional data, three-dimensional data, multidimensional data, temporal data, hierarchical data and network data. In the above types, the following are the focus of our current work, and then specific to them to carry out detailed discussion and analysis.

For multidimensional data, if you use the previous two-dimensional diagram, its drawbacks are more, can not meet the current needs of the work, such as unable to ensure the amount of information, can not meet its complexity. And the use of multidimensional data can be a good solution to the drawbacks mentioned above. At present, the types of multidimensional data visualization are very many, and then specific description of several current high application rate, with typical methods.

It is mainly the use of parallel axes to reflect the dimension, specifically on the axis of the depiction of data, and a polyline connected to a data item on all axes of the coordinate points, so you can see multidimensional data in the two-dimensional model. The location of the point is calculated using a spring model. However, it also has drawbacks, that is, if the data size is very large, it will cause us to visually have a confusing feeling, interference with the user to understand the visual content.

Specifically, it refers to the use of two-dimensional coordinates in the specific points to reflect the relationship between variables. In general, we often use this method and other methods together, the advantage is to be able to significantly enhance the display of data, can reflect a large number of data. The advantage of this technique is to be able to know the connection of the variable at a very fast rate, but it also has a disadvantage, that is, if the dimension is very large, because the screen is limited, so it can not reflect the total amount of matrix data, at this time, we must rely on interactive technology to achieve our

It refers to the use of two-dimensional coordinates to reflect the data, the multidimensional space of various information through the function of the curve, through the observation curve, we can learn the various clustering of data.

An icon-based visualization method uses geometric shapes with visual features as icons to carve multidimensional data, and each of these visual properties, such as size, length, shape, and color, can be used as dimensions for visualization through the mapping of multidimensional data to these icon properties. The representative methods include the Star painting method and the Chernoff surface method. The star-painting method uses a number of segments which radiate from one point outward to represent the data dimension, and the length of each line segment reflects the corresponding dimension degree. Chernoff Surface method refers to the use of human face features to reflect the dimension, through the drawing of a face map to get multidimensional data, according to a specific strategy to order it, so as to ensure that the data in visual mode reflected. Its advantages are more attractive than other graphics, so users like to spend a lot of time to study them, so it shows better results, in addition, it can help us better identify the intrinsic relevance of elements.

As we all know, because the animation can be more intuitive embodiment of the content, to bring us a more perfect visual experience, so it is a lot of use in the user's interface. Through research we find that using animations can help us get higher interactivity and be more easily understood. Specifically, the following four points are reflected. Moving objects can attract our attention more than stationary objects. Through the animation, we can know the change of the object, such as its location and shape and color, and so on, we can obviously feel the change of the object. Finally, compared to the stationary object, the vast number of users are more interested in moving objects, when looking at the data in a more comfortable mood. How to do the animation design work, to ensure that its better being understood by the user has become the current work of the most important. In particular, there are two kinds of methods commonly used at present, one is to use action when encoding, and turn it into additional variable. Second, the use of animation to ensure that the various transformations are well understood. The cone tree uses the rotation of the animation at multiple levels of the tree to make the selected item into the viewer's field of vision. Spacetrees and Doitrees use animations to dynamically display the unfolding and folding of trees and branches. At the same time, if the speed of animation is very slow, it is a waste of time, on the contrary if too fast will make people can not understand well. Therefore, we must determine its speed, generally speaking is based on the state of the scene and the user's background to be clear, in the specific use of the time must be carefully analyzed.

The so-called time series data, specifically refers to has the time characteristic data set, specifically, its visualization form has the following several.

Linear graphs are the most common form. Use point to reflect data and time development. If the data has a lot of time dimensions, then we can create the corresponding icons for all the dimensions so that they are aligned, in order to compare the development direction of the event.

Stacked graphs reflect the cumulative pattern of event sequences, and we can use this method to learn the sum of the sequences. Its advantage is that it can be a good embodiment of the sum of the sequence, but it also has drawbacks, that is, can not be compared with all the sequence, and if the processing of negative words, the effect is not very good.

The advantage of animation over a static picture is that it can reflect whether the time series is changed. But its shortcomings are not very accurate embodiment of the data.

The timeline refers to the use of the time axis, the data in the form of graphics to reflect the coordinates.

In a variety of data, the probability of hierarchical data is very high, it can be used to draw a variety of biological and organizational forms and social networks. There are two kinds of forms, which are discussed separately.

Node link graph is to organize the hierarchical data into a tree-like node of the connection structure, drawing nodes to reflect the data and their internal relations, generally speaking, the node is very small, can not cover a lot of content. Its link graph can clearly reflect the connection between the data, however, there is a big gap between them, which leads to serious waste, and if the data is very large, these branches will come together, it is obvious that the situation will be very confusing, resulting in visual inability to judge.

At the end of the last century, experts proposed tree-drawing techniques. It can embody a lot of data in a particular space, but its flaws are not able to embody some details. In order to reflect its details well, the researchers developed an interactive approach based on the "Focus + context" technology.

Network data has a mesh structure. The Automatic layout algorithm is the core of network data visualization, there are 3 kinds of specific types: one is the concept of force in the simulation physics to draw the net diagram, namely force node link graph two is hierarchical layout; Three is the grid layout. At present, many research work is based on the above algorithm. In the visualization of network data, if the node has a lot of connections, it will form a side crossover, which makes us visually have a very confusing feeling. To this end, we study the cluster edge technology, which can deal with the drawbacks. There are many types, such as force-oriented cluster edge technology, hierarchical cluster edge technology, and geometry based edge clustering technology.

At present, many researchers are aware that visual elements can have a noticeable impact on visualization, such as their location and color. By evaluating the effect of these factors on the user's perception, the design workers can optimize the development, which is the key content of the current work. Ber-tin first conducted a systematic experiment, studied the effect of visual elements in the visualization of nominal, sequential and metric data, and tested the influence of visual elements by scientific experiments based on human subjective cognition Cleveland. Simkin has tested human cognitive differences in bar and pie charts. The adaptive visualization technique can be used to adjust the visual mode of the user. At present, according to the work of the researchers, we can divide it into several types, such as adaptive visualization, Adaptive resource model and adaptive user model.

Adaptive visualization refers to the combination of the characteristics of the user, to provide them with the various types required, it can determine its own content and layout, etc., but also can automatically change colors and icons and other content.

The objective of the adaptive resource model is to improve the technical

Yes.

Adaptive user models refer to the use of human model content to ensure that users can edit the data themselves to make sure that they manipulate the data.

Through the above we know that the technology is static, in the interactivity of poor performance, can not help users to learn a variety of information.

In the Morse and other people's view, the current evaluation of the technology is not a lot, the research topic is very few. Meyer points out that there is no universally accepted standard for optimal data presentation, partly because of the lack of empirical evidence and the variety of visualization methods. Purchase believes that evaluation is not desirable only on the basis of aesthetic factors or computational efficiency evaluation, but should consider the ability of visualization to improve user performance. We find that there is a very close relationship between the appearance of the interface and its performance. While aesthetic factors are often associated with perceived ease of use, perceived ease of use and actual usability may be irrelevant. There are still some researchers who think it is possible to use expressiveness to carry out evaluations, and of course there are those who think it needs to be evaluated by effectiveness.

Currently, some researchers have focused on assessing the visualization of specific industries. However, Dowell and so on, because it is only for specific industries to carry out, so its promotional benefits are not very good. The most common evaluation measure is to use the knowledge of psychology, using various visualization measures to carry out specific test activities, and then analyze the respondents ' answers, as well as the accuracy of their responses and the degree of confidence in the process and the time spent, and other factors than the advantages and disadvantages of various methods.

In general, its evaluation measures and systems are currently subject to many researchers ' attention, but the corresponding research results are not many, the development is lagging behind, so for this situation, our urgent task is to focus on the evaluation theory and the use of the analysis work.

Through the above-mentioned content, we can see that the current information visualization technology has been widely applied to our work, and its research activities have been carried out in full swing. Through the continuous efforts of relevant workers, the current has accumulated a lot of experience in this area, but also in the new direction of development. In accordance with its principles, in the specific application of the time to adhere to the following elements: visualization, relevance, art, and interactivity. At the same time, it has to be effectively linked to data mining technology, to ensure its better use, at present the application of the technology range is very wide, user feedback is very good, we firmly believe that with the development of the Times, the technology will certainly develop more and more good, our country's economic construction work will certainly be more brilliant.

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