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留学生作业代写:The Totem Worship

2017-10-09 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The Totem Worship,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了图腾崇拜。图腾崇拜是原始宗教形式之一。图腾信仰者认为人与某种动物、植物或生物之间,这种图腾就是该族的祖先和保护神,也是该氏族的微号、标志和象征。图腾崇拜是一个历史的概念。随着历史的变迁,一些被分离出来的部落或氏族不仅拥有了自身的图腾,而且同时还继承追崇原来部落或氏族的图腾。这样,随着社会的发展,便构成了一个庞大的图腾文化体系。

Totem Worship,图腾崇拜,essay代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

In the primitive society, each clan and tribe, as a symbol of the family, is called Totem, and each member must recognize that he has a special kinship with the totem, and worships it, that is, totem worship.

Totem worship is one of the original religious forms, the word "totem" is the dialect of the North American Indian Gibois people, meaning "his kin." "The totem-believer believes that between man and an animal, plant, or creature, this totem is the ancestor and protector of the clan, and the symbol and emblem of the tribe."

Primitive religion is a continuous development, at first natural worship, people worship all kinds of natural phenomena, such as stars, wind and rain thunder, mountains, soil and stone, animal plants and so on. With the improvement of human's ability to conquer nature and the progress of cognition level, the abstract thinking and illusion ability can be realized. In the practice of nature worship, it is found that there are a few natural phenomena that have a special relationship with themselves. such as in the cold and cold, an animal often provide themselves with much-needed means of subsistence, so that people have a kind of gratitude to them, or because of some fierce animals to bring people a deadly threat, so people are extremely afraid, awe. Under the domination of the supernatural, people regard these natural phenomena as the gods related to their own lives. At the same time, at that time, human beings are in the matrilineal clan period, the children know their mother, do not know the father, also do not clear the causal relationship between the birth, the human beings in retrospect of their own origin, in addition to clear their own ancestor, do not know the father, and the above-mentioned gods as one of their Thus produced the totem belief, each clan chooses as the clan Totem worship object, often is with each clan's production and the life has the close relation the animal and plant or the microorganism. Therefore, the totem is with the Matriarchal clan simultaneously produces, and along with the clan development and development. When a clan developed into more than two clans, the original clan Totem evolved into a clan totem, the new or the daughter clan has a fresh totem. such as the Lisu clan has a bear clan, later developed into three daughters of the clan, followed by the emergence of a bear, pig bear and the Big Bear three totem. With the disintegration of the Matriarchal clan, the totem belief gradually withdrew from the stage of history. The original totem image is the totem of its own image, such as snakes are snakes, tigers are tigers. Later is half man and half beast image, such as dog first person, head snake body, dragon Head person and so on, finally is the totem of deified, such as Dragon and Phoenix and so on.

In the study of ancient history, or in the archaeological work, some comrades see a bird image on the objects are all called Bird Totem, see the Rock on the Sheep run map is considered a sheep totem. This view is clearly too simplistic. A certain animal plant or microorganism as a totem attribute should be carefully analyzed, one depends on whether it is the product of the Totem era, and the other is to look at some characteristics of its totem. Whether it is archaeological data or ethnological information, the totem is a specific meaning, and has a number of characteristics: the first each clan has its own totem, the name of the totem later evolved into a surname. There are many surnames in Han surnames, which are originated from Totem, and the minority nationalities have similar situations. Second, that the clan is born of the Totem, the two have a certain blood relationship, and create a lot of totem myth, people often from the totem of faith to draw their own lineage. Third, to the Clan totem a set of sacrificial activities, such as the sacrificial rites of the shes, Miao's worship Pan-Hu Temple, are recognized as the center of Worship dog Totem religious activities. Zhuang has a frog festival, is ancestor worship Frog Totem, pray for agricultural harvest. Four, each clan has a number of taboos on their totem, such as forbidden to say totem name. Kill, fast or even touch the totem. While the clan banned the killing of animals, other clans can hunt. At that time, many animals, totem different, on animals, plants played a certain role in the protection and mediation, which has a certain benefit to the ecological environment.

Totem Worship is a historical concept. Foreign archaeological data show that this originated from the Paleolithic period, flourished in the late old times and in the Middle Stone Age, and in the Neolithic age of the totem culture, it is neither static nor the opposite of life and extinction. As Tribes and clans split, the tribes or clans that were separated were not only possessed of their own totem, but also inherited the totem of the original tribe or clan. In this way, with the development of society, it constitutes a huge totem culture system.

The worship of totem in Primitive society is universal, not unique to China, but worship of Dragon Totem is unique to China. China's Primitive Society worship a lot of totem, as the clan expanded into the tribe, tribal expansion for the Tribal Alliance, the integration between the tribes, many of the totem has also changed, some disappeared, some changed, some merged, from the gradual evolution of the Dragon Totem, along with the Dragon Totem also appeared Phoenix Totem, to Phoenix with Dragons, More so that the dragon Totem formed more and more superior, the Chinese nation's psychological identity, along with the development of society, the Dragon as primitive human totem worship and later feudal emperors of the imperial power symbol has become a historical relic.

"Yi Zhuan" said that the worship of ghosts and gods is out of a fear of psychological feelings and to obtain "auspicious", "World Service" utilitarian goals. And the strong powerful force of Totem Dragon and the boundless supernatural power, then reflect the Chinese ancestors of the gods of awe and Shinting good wishes. Therefore, many mythical emperors, palaces and emperors ' tombs in ancient times of our country have a large number of various buildings with dragons as their motifs. By the mythical mythical dragon to show off his own life, the image of the "divine monarchy" feudal concept. The image of the Dragon embodies the wisdom of the ancient ancestors as a great creation, both biological entities and virtual objects. From the concrete to the abstract, and this high level of abstraction has a greater universal significance.

In the American Indian totem Worship, the totem idea mainly manifests the totem kinship idea and the totem ancestor idea. It is also derived from the totem of fertility and totem incarnation beliefs. Totem is sometimes not only the object of worship, but also the name or mark of the Clan or tribe.

The above totem points to our identification and identification of ancient totem image has an important help, that is, if certain things for the totem, not only to consider the social background, to observe its image, but also to see whether it has a number of characteristics, so that the totem and the general animal worship or animal and plant image distinguish. Perhaps some people ask: does China have a unified totem? Some people say there is, some people say no, some people say Dragon and Phoenix or long Tiger is this unified totem symbol. As we all know, totem belief prevails in matrilineal Clan society, when the tribes are still dispersed and independent, and lack of intercourse with each other, there can not be a common totem at that time. Whether it is the Yangshao culture of the archaeological discoveries, Hemudu cultures, or legends of the Times of Huaxia, east and three Miao, they can never be a belief in a totem, but their respective beliefs different totem. So is the totem history of the ethnic groups in modern China. How can a Chinese nation have a unified totem? As for the common art theme of Chinese civilization, ―― Dragon and Phoenix or long tiger image, it is not so much a uniform totem, it is said that it comes from the totem more exact, and is the symbol of the kingship has an important relationship. Therefore, the Dragon and the dragon and the Tigers are not the totem of the original meaning.

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