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美国作业代写:Globalization has affected the environment

2017-07-13 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Globalization has affected the environment,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了全球化对环境的影响。全球化对环境的影响一直是世界各国关注和争论的话题。有人认为,全球化是导致环境退化的主要原因之一;但也有人认为,全球化缓解了这种退化。而现实是,全球化对环境问题应负部分责任,尽管其影响是间接的,但由于生产和消费链的转移,所以其对全球环境问题的管理增加了许多挑战。

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The effect of globalization on the environment has always been a concerned and controversial topic around the world. The environmentalists believe that globalization is one of the major vehicles behind environmental degradation, while the advocates of globalization argue that it is the globalizing process stimulating the diffusion of environmental friendly technologies that relieve the degradation. Hence this essay will examine the main causes and impacts of, and the solutions to such degradation in economic, social, and cultural aspects with both practical and theoretical evidence, which is to offer a viewpoint that globalization does have accelerated the environmental problems today, although indirectly, and meanwhile the process has introduced some solutions concerning economic, social and cultural aspects, which are working but may be still short of effectiveness and intensity comparing to the severity of the problems, which needs a further co-effort globally.

Environmental degradation refers to “disintegration of the earth” or “deterioration of the environment” via resource consumption, such as water, air and soil, which normally presents the destruction of nature and wildlife (Conserve Energy Future, 2016). Nowadays, environmental degradation events such as global warming due to carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, acid rain, agricultural runoff and the recent air pollution in Beijing, China are all threatening human’s living conditions urgently. For example, the sea level is keeping rising since the past decades, and one of the most obvious impacts is that the famous beautiful island Maldives may face its disappear in the 100 years. Today people are risking their health every moment as the resources are draining, extreme weathers are threating and damage to environment is still emerging. According to World watch Institute (2006), 2.5 million people in the Asia-Pacific region die annually due to air pollution, unclean water and bad sanitation. Some voices point that the continuous damage results largely from increasing globalization process. Globalization refers to the process through which all people and communities in the world could experience a rising common environment of economy, society and culture (International Federation of Social Workers, 2012). Najam et al (2007) have segmented such process into three kinds of global activities in terms of means of influence – the Economy, Knowledge and Governance Globalization, which all impact the environment on different levels indirectly in positive way or adversely.

To justify the causes of environmental degradation, the economy globalization shall be the first affecting element to examine, the development level of which decides the income level (pollution transfer) and trade (pollution emission), which is argued to cause a change in environment quality(Najam et al, 2007; Baek et al, 2008).

First, as Baek et al (2008) claims that the income growth coming from liberated economy will have a detrimental impact on environmental quality due to citizens’ demand. Supplementary, many scholars such as Lucas et al. (1992), Gale and Mendez (1998) and Dean (2002) have found that globalization with opening trade and income increase lead to the growth of intensive-polluted industries in fast growing economies. As when people in developed countries obtain higher quality of life, they begin to have increasing desires for good working and living environment, which lead developed countries to move pollute-intensive industries to developing countries, where have looser pollution restrictions in an aim to attract more foreign investment for economic growth.

Second, the increasing complexity of production and consumption chain today with a radical transfer from domestic to global level has raising a concern for emission pollution. As Najam et al (2007) proposes globalization promotes CO2 emission, through multiplied long-distance international trade. Pollution from road transport (cars and trucks mainly) is a major part while that across national borders can’t be neglected neither.

However, Ghemawat (2012) claims that the effect of globalization on environment is “far less scary than many people think”, as most of the environmental problems still remain local as opposed to global, which is heavily affected by the means of local transportation. As he proposes, transporting domestically that mainly via land logistics actually consumes twice more than airfreight or sea shipping of international delivery. Based on the statistics of Ribeiroet al(2007), with the same kilometer/ ton basis, a truck emits 50g of CO2, while a cargo ship emits just 15-21g equivalently. Similarly, aircraft transportation only consumes 8.95% energy, less than 34.2% of light vehicles and 12.48% of heavy freight trucks (See Figure 1). Through the emission figure, we can see that very unlike people’s common estimates, international trade accounts a minor part in pollution emission. Although globalization may contribute less than people think about polluted emission, this figure cannot be the excuse for people’s neglect on environmental problems.

Figure 1 World Transport Energy Use in 2000, by Mode

Source from Ribeiro et al. (2007). Transport and Its Infrastructure.

The exploitation of scarce natural resources is also accelerated by the globalization, which pulls those developing countries to export their resources; for example, African and Latin American countries export their oil and woods, considering less about soil sink or deforestation (Muradian, 2004). However, this does not simply means local problem, as regional environmental degradation will someday evolve to global environmental degradation and no one can escape from the problems, for example, the global warming and climate changes.

In addition, the globalization makes it rising difficult for countries to simply dependent on national rules to guarantee the well being of their people and environment. Many of today’s global environmental problems have grown out of the governance system designed to solve them (Najam et al, 2007). That is to say the essential structure of international governance system still maintains as state-centric, but the problems and the solutions are no longer so. Moreover, the regulations would highly affect the patterns of trade and both internal and external investments, based on which a nation has to balance quite cautiously and sometimes compromise for economic growth(Muradian, 2004). More than one author has argued, “the economy is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the ecology” (Nelson, 2002).

On the contrary, although globalization has caused environmental problems indirectly, it can be a vector for environmental solutions.

First, Economic Globalization has further facilitated the application of green technologies to cross borders quicker. International investments on green technology are ever higher today. According to Huwart and Verdier (2013), in 2008, venture capital funds of US has invested$2.8 billion in biofuels, renewable energy, wind energy and solar energy around the global, making a record although in an economic recession. Besides, the push of such green technology is prospective, as the demand for environmental solutions has not only stimulated new products and activities, but also new production procedure, which can spread quickly through the globalization trade and producing network. Nowadays, multinational enterprises (MNEs) also become allies in fighting environmental problems, for example, large European corporations plant the Chinese megalopolises with wastewater dealing equipment as well as recycling and waste collection systems with high technologies (Huwart, 2013).

Second, Knowledge Globalization works as another essential vehicle pushes environmental solutions. Knowledge globalization includes a flow of information, ideology, culture and technology. Globalized research and innovation has spread from developed countries to less developed regions, applied by transnational corporations in their local practice. But one issue we have to recognize is that the availability of the green technology may still be insufficient for the globe, as the new energy is still an under-developing and one of the most difficult research topics for the less developed countries, as it requires both huge capital and knowledge investment on research and development (R&D).Besides, it also relies on the individual consumers’ consumption habits. Take the car industry as illustration, although hybrid cars are published with greater volumes than the past 30 or 40 years, and the industry is able to make cars more cleaner than today, “the short driving range and short battery life have limited the market penetration” (Ribeiroet al., 2007). The advance technology cannot operate outside of the context of consuming demand (Brown, 2006).

Besides, environmental consciousness rises with the global environment networks mature and such globalization also pushes forward the civil society movements. One of the most obvious impacts is that globalization has helped to spread a homogenization of consumption habits –environmentalism has become a global norm with huge endorsements (Najam et al, 2007).

Third, better globalizing governance is claimed to be the key to managing globalized environmental degradation. Governance Globalization has risen these years with a growing need and expectation for global regulations, focusing on to enforce the existing agreements and synergize them for an improvement of environment globally. The diversity of participants and coalitions of different countries has been continued growing during the globalizing process with co-facing environmental threats. Luckily today a common goal of “sustainable development” is shared commonly and supported largely by many developing countries, like China, and powerful worldwide organizations such as World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and etc. Supplementary, a number of attempts of international institutional reform have been initiated, with more specific strengthening programs targeting to different areas, such as United Nations Environment Program(UNEP) for global environmental governance, and China Environmental Protection Association (CEPA) in China. And some positive outcomes come from the globally coordinated actions. Some nations have signed agreements to restrict nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions, the cause of acid rains, which are now reduced considerably all over the world. While the international cooperation is still insufficient due to different political power behind the environment issues, for example, the 2009 Copenhagen Conference, which was planned to extend the dynamic of Kyoto, failed to work as the participant 180 countries did not approach a quantity agreement on Greenhouse Gas emission (Huwart, 2013).

Combining the different views above, globalization should be partly responsible for the environmental problems, although its effects are indirect, which is mainly due to the production and consumption chain transfer and an increasing challenge to regulate the global environmental issues. Although the effects of transport pollution may be sometimes over emphasized and local-specific, it does not mean that the world can be loose in searching for the solutions to the real environmental problems. The effect of globalization on environment is never one-direction;we shall realize that globalization can be the current most accessible solution to the degradation, even though with several limitations in application. Globalization still promotes an overall environment protection in economic, social and cultural aspects. With capital and economy globalizing process, the developing countries could obtain financial aids from international institutes for their green technology development. With knowledge globalization expands, citizens’ consciousness on protecting environment increases on a daily basis, which is changing consumers’ buying patterns and improving the social civil construction. Furthermore, the governing system is also globalizing, which helps to provide more well developed regulations on global environmental issues, and promotes specific solutions to regional damage. But we need to realize that the progress is still insufficient facing today’s common environmental problems, which needs the co-effort of each of us.

Word count: 1807

Reference

Baek, J., Cho, Y. S., Koo, W.W. (2008). The Environmental Consequences of Globalization: A Country-Specific Time-Series Analysis. Retrieved June 1st, 2016 from http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/6510/2/497478.pdf

Brown, J.W., Chasek, P. and Downie, D.L. (2006). Global EnvironmentalPolitics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Conserve Energy Future. (2016). What is Environmental Degradation? Retrieved June 1st, 2016 from http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-and-effects-of-environmental-degradation.php

Dean, J. (2002). Does trade liberalization harm the environment? A new test. Canadian Journal of Economics 35(4): 819-842.

Huwart, J., Y. and Verdier, L. (2013), What is the impact of globalisation on the environment? In Economic Globalisation: Origins and Consequences. OECD Publishing. Retrieved June 1st, 2016 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264111905-8-en

International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW). (2012). Globalisation and the Environment. Retrieved June 1st, 2016 from http://ifsw.org/policies/globalisation-and-the-environment/

Najam, A., Runnalls, D., and Halle M. (2007). Environment and Globalization Five Propositions. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. Retrieved June 1st, 2016 from https://www.iisd.org/pdf/2007/trade_environment_globalization.pdf

Nelson, G. (2002). Beyond Earth Day: Fulfilling the Promise. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Gale, L.R., and Mendez, J.A. (1998). The empirical relationship between trade, growth and the environment. International Review of Economics and Finance 7(1): 53-61.

Ghemawat, P. (2012). Globalization Plays a Bit Part in Environmental Issues. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved June 1st, 2016 from https://hbr.org/2012/05/globalization-plays-a-bit-part

Lucas, R.E.B., David, W., and Hemamala, H. (1992). Economic development, environmental regulation and the international migration of toxic industrial pollution: 1960-1988, in Patrick Low (Ed.), International trade and the environment. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 159. Washington DC: World Bank, 1992, pp. 67-86.

Muradian, R. (2004). Economic Globalisation and the Environment. Retrieved June 1st, 2016 from http://www.isecoeco.org/pdf/globalisation_environment.pdf

Ribeiro, K., S., Kobayashi, S., Beuthe, M., Gasca, J., Greene, D., Lee, D., S., Muromachi, Y., Newton, P., J., Plotkin, S., Sperling, D., Wit, R. &Zhou,P.,J. (2007). Transport and Its Infrastructure. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the FourthAssessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)],Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Retrieved June 1st, 2016 from http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg3/ar4-wg3-chapter5.pdf

Worldwatch Institute. (2006). State of the World 2006, Special Focus: China and India. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.

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