2016-12-24 来源: 51due教员团队 类别: Essay范文
“在《穿普拉达的恶魔》中的团队建设和激励哲学”，这篇论文主要描述的是在大卫 · 弗兰克尔所执导的电影《穿普拉达的恶魔》中讲述了在团队的建设当中，两个或以上的团队成员在工作的过程中相辅相成，动力便是推动团队通力协作的基本要素，电影也体现出激励哲学在团队建设中的重要性。
Films embody a potential means of connecting theory with practice experience like management philosophy. The Devil Wears Prada directed by David Frankel in 2006, embody the theory of how to build and run a team. Team is one type of groups, consisting of more than 2 members with complementary skills working together for common purpose. Motivation is the essential for a high performance team, which is the process of team members collaboratively working for a goal. This essay aims to analyze team building and how to motivate team members in the movie.
The team building and teamwork philosophy in films
In The Devil Wears Prada, Andy Sachs got an acceptance of working in New York Mirror, a top fashion magazine in America. As for Andy, she is a fresh in the organization. As an assistant, she is involved with dealing with Miranda’s errands such as making coffee picking up dry-cleaning. She is fresh in the organization just like a fish out of water. Like others, new members are always accompanied numerous problems. They concern about how to participate in teamwork, team’s goals, control and relationship with others. Emily (Blunt), the first assistance of Miranda, the first hand of New York Mirror, is the guider of Andy fresh in the work. She doesn't think much of Andy, but constantly help her in some ways. Emily, Elder team member leading fresher in an organization makes new member blend in new team more easily. Andy knows the circumstance of the film through Emily’s presentation. And in dealing with tough issues, Emily gives advice to Andy.
There one more person doing a great favor for Andy’s job, Nigel. When Andy slowly blends in the organization, she unsatisfied with some condition of her job. According to the EVLN models, there are for behaviors that employees might choose to express their dissatisfaction: loyalty, negative, voice and exit (Tucker 2010). Organization keeps changing and regulations can not meet everyone, there is always some dissatisfaction. Some show their understanding and keep loyalty to the team and work hard as usual, some negative to the dissatisfaction and do nothing, some start to voicing their dissatisfaction and hopes change can happen, exit is the last choice people would choose. Andy sometimes grumbles about her work to Nigel. Nigel gives advice for her and helps her deal with her boss. Nigel, as an elder professions working with Miranda, help Andy to transform something into her boss could take more seriously. In the film, Nigel shows kindness to Andy and make Andy feels warm at the beginning of her entrance to the company, which is important for new team members.
In the film, Miranda，Emily, Andy is a small team. Miranda is a professional, devoted, and arrogant boss who is strict to her subordinate, and Andy is hard worker who strive to make work done with high motivation. Miranda chooses Andy for she believes that Andy is special and deserve to groom. In building a team, it is important for superior to praise subordinates. Leaders can win respect in the eyes from subordinates with praising them more often, and subordinates will increase self-esteem and confidence when they get appreciation from boss. Miranda shows approval and assigns important task gradually. It is very important of communication between supervisory communication and the purpose of the communication is to work more effectively. Subordinate must do a good job and the things that leaders require, on the other hand, superiors need to be understandable and forgivable for the mistake subordinate make, otherwise, supervisory relationship would become cold and tough. Besides, loyalty and trust is mutual. Trust is building on the basement of loyalty. As a leader, superiors should actively communicate with subordinate and keep words they told subordinates. Leaders could and should give advice when subordinate meet obstacles in coping with tough task, and give approval when they do a good job or give advice when they mess up something. If the trust can not build, organization can not keep staff and motivate employee performance for the company.
Motivate team members with applying Maslow’s needs
According to Maslow’s theory, there are five different levels of needs. The essence of the living is physiological needs which are the physical requirement of surviving. Team members should afford water, electricity, food and other basic matter for living. When the physiological needs are met, individual pursue the safety needs. In a team, members seek for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority and so on. The need of love and belonging is higher hierarchy needs in Maslow’s theory. People are social animals willing to for and maintain health relationship with teammates. Maslow argued that people desire a feeling of belonging and acceptance in their groups. When the last three hierarchies of needs are met, the needs of esteem take procedure. Maslow marked two versions of esteem needs of lower and higher version. Members need respect from others. Team members may need attention, status, recognition, prestige and so on. The higher version of esteem need is self-esteem, for example, individuals have a desire for strength, competence, self-confidence and freedom. The highest level of the Maslow needs is the self-actualization. The quotation, “what a man can be, he must be”, forms the perceived need for self-actualization. In an organization, giving the chance for individual to do what they want to achieve is the best motivation. Maslow assumed that to achieve the need of the last hierarchy, team must not only meet the previous needs but also to master them.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory clearly describes the types and hierarchies of individuals’ needs, which provides a basis for the theoretical guide in management practice. People's motivation originated in the demand and desire, besides, unmet needs is the starting point of stimulate and it is the key point of causing behavior. In an organization, appropriate external compensation system and working environment with behavior regulation, reward and punishment system to standard and motivate employees. In order to effectively stimulate the individuals, organization needs to figure out what employees need. To eliminate the phenomenon of blind incentive, the investigation and analysis of staff need should be taken to figure out the hierarchies of employees needs. Formulating the incentive measures targeted for the incentives of employees can more effectively motivate team members, arouse the enthusiasm of employees, and better incentive effect can be achieved. Compensation is the most direct embodiment of incentive motivation, occupying an important position in motivation measures. Incentive compensation management is not just about money, which is essentially a successive of very complicated incentives including the implicit achievement motivation. If the most basic physiological needs of employee can not meet, the employee can not concentrate on the job. Team members, in an organization, firstly consider the wages in the employment. So the minimum wages paid for workforce should be higher more than the state benefit for unemployed individuals. Security needs require managers to be very cautious before layoffs. The needs of the security, as a means of incentive, make employees occupational safety protection. For example, strengthen rules and regulations, strengthen the professional skills of individuals, improve the welfare benefits and ensure that employees avoid laid off in the production of automation process.
When the firs two needs are met, people desire for the next hierarchy of needs, acceptance, belonging and respect. The third and fourth levels of needs are cross-correlation. In the film, Andy first accessing in the New York Magazine desires to blend the team, and strive for the approval of Miranda. Through her intelligence and hard work, she gradually gets respect from Miranda and her colleagues. But she still does not raise strong interest of fashion and through a period of work in there, she does not think she belong the group, so she leave by the magazine by the end. In order to motivate team members, spiritual motivation is very important. Superior need to communicate with subordinates often and build the loyalty and trust between them, which are helpful for team members feel a sense of belonging and respect. Besides, pay not only guarantees the basic requirement of surviving but also a key element to motivate employees. Firstly, establish incentive pay system on the basic of equality. Adams’ Equity Theory, developed by John Stacey Adams (1963), calls for equity between team members input and output. According to the theory, the inputs include effort, loyalty, skill, ability, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance, commitment, hard work, enthusiasm, trust in superiors, support of colleagues, and personal sacrifice, while the outputs includes financial rewards (such as wages, perks, benefit), recognition, responsibility, sense of achievement, stimulus, sense of advancement and growth and job security. The key point of the theory states high outcomes and effective motivation can be expected only when fair treatments are perceived by the team members (Docin 2009). When team members recognize tat various outputs differentiate the rewards, those who get high inputs for high outputs have a sense that their hard work is deserved, so they would keep work hard, and those who with low performance if work hard for higher payments.
Last but the least, the highest hierarchy of Maslow’s need is self-actualization. Authorization means effectively doing two things at the same time: one is to create the atmosphere of the pledge "we can" spirit, the other needs to have a group of grass-roots staff having desire, ability and courage to do their work and to solve their own problems (Robbins, Millett & Waters-Marsh 2008). Let the employees develop a sense of ownership of the company. Let staff aware that have contributed their work, their life has a value, is the owner of the company. Retain talent constantly updated system, timely grasp the specific idea of employee. Each phase of each employee's idea is different, incentive ways should also be followed by the corresponding change. Authorization let employees have autonomy, make employees get respect and affirmation. When they accomplish something for the company, they will have a sense of achievement. Only in this way, can an enterprise retain available talents, which is also the business way of an enterprise.
The risks and losses should be evaluated before authorization. Subsequently, responsibility should be consistently correspondent with the power. If responsibility is greater than the right, the staffs need to constantly ask for instructions and wait for approval when dealing with the share of the work, which easily make employees feel suppress and difficult to arouse the enthusiasm for work; if right is greater than the responsibility, employee may unreasonable abuse of power, which increase the difficulty of the management. The reasonable inspection need to taken to assure things run in the right way (Martin 2005). Task assigned from Miranda to Andy, Miranda gives full trust for the Andy’s ability of solving problem, and inspect in necessarily occasion.
Practice experience often adopted in the film, and in The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda, Emily, and Andy is a small team in the bigger group comprised by employees in the magazine. The film starts from Andy accessing in the new team, and the building and developing of the team. The experience of the film has a positive effect in team building, and according to Maslow’s needs, there are many measures can be adopted to improve teamwork and performance of team members.