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Two Phenomena of the Educational System in Saudi Arabia

2020-05-22 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 写作技巧

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Two Phenomena of the Educational System in Saudi Arabia。本文讲述沙特阿拉伯是一个以其石油储量和财富而闻名的国家。但是,其教育系统在几年中经历了巨大的增长,并已发展成为一个相对成熟的系统,这也是沙特阿拉伯发展的一个相当重要的因素,值得研究。尽管之前已经讨论了几种类型的学校单位,但沙特阿拉伯的教育系统表现出宗教与知识的结合,因此是一个独特的系统。沙特阿拉伯的教育最初目标是确保信徒对上帝律法的理解,并按照他们的生活方式生活(国会图书馆)。该论文将集中讨论沙特阿拉伯教育体系的两种现象,即政府对留学生和沙特阿拉伯妇女教育的支持。这两种现象值得关注,因为它们在某种程度上都与宗教文化,历史,国际关系乃至地理有关,值得讨论。

 

Research topic

Saudi Arabia is a country which is renowned for its oil reserves and wealth. However, its educational system experienced a massive growth in a few years and has grown up into a relatively mature one, which is also a quite important factor for the development of Saudi Arabia and worth researching. Though several types of school units have been discussed before, the educational system of Saudi Arabia is a unique one since it demonstrates a combination of religion and knowledge. The original goal of education in Saudi Arabia is to ensure the believers’ understanding of God’s law and live his or her life in accordance with them (Library of Congress,). The paper is going to focus on two phenomena of Saudi Arabia’s educational system, that is, government’s support for students who study abroad and women’s education in Saudi Arabia. These two phenomena are worth pay attention to since they are both, to some extent, related to the religious culture, history, international relationships and even geography, which are worth discussing.

For the first one, the figure of students studying abroad experienced a drop because of the expansion of university system at a relatively early stage but later presented a sharp rise. The funds offered by Saudi government is up to four years’ tuition fee and living expense, which is quite a large a sum of money. In the paper the author will discuss this issue in terms of economy, political collaborations and some other factors.

The gender issue, however, is relatively sensitive. Today, female students make up over half of the more than 6 million students currently enrolled in Saudi schools and universities. Whereas the situation was not that good at the beginning, opening schools for girls met strong oppositions as some people consider female education useless. The author will discuss this issue from the history and culture of Arab, and try to find out something new from it.

 

Introduction

General education in the Kingdom consists of kindergarten, six years of primary school and three years each of intermediate and high school (Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington, DC, 2013). After high school, students can go to universities home or abroad.

At the most elementary level in nineteenth century, the purpose of basic religious learning was to know the contents of Holy Scripture rather than understanding the usage of Arabic, the effect of education was not that distinguished. However, later in the late nineteenth century, more subjects such as history, Arabic language, literature were included in formal class. The education later was proved effective. The literacy rate of 15 percent for men and 2 percent for women in Saudi Arabia was lower only in Yemen and Afghanistan while by 1990 the literacy rate for men had risen to 73 percent and that for women to 48 percent (Library of Congress,). Students nowadays even have boarder options which vary from commerce, art, science to computer.

As for higher education, by 2014, there were 25 major public universities, a large number of vocational institutes, and a growing number of private colleges. Currently, about 1 million students are enrolled at Saudi universities and colleges, compared to 7,000 in 1970 (Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington, DC, 2013). Since Saudi can not rely on oil export for good, the transition must be taken and it seems be a good sign at present.

 

Students Studying Abroad

Students will encounter international challenges from all aspects when studying abroad, including the impact of hi-technology, social conventions, language and nostalgia. For an Islamic country, the culture influence is the most concerning one.

Upon their return to Saudi Arabia, these graduates of foreign universities were often appointed to important positions. The wave of foreign-trained students after the mid-1970s dominated most of the middle level of civil service and government agencies (Croom Helm, 1988). The conservatives accused the government for its Westernization. However, the number of students studying abroad presented an increase from about 5000 in 1970 to more than 18,000 in 1985. Figures supplied by the Ministry of Economy and Planning in Saudi Arabia indicate that in January 2011, there were 107,706 Saudi students studying at universities outside the country (Larry Smith, 2013). 

Statistics shows that even faced with economic recession and the suspects from conservatives; Saudi Arabia continues sending students to foreign countries to learn advanced technologies and theories. The students are mainly funded by The King Abdullah Scholarship Program established in 2005, which covers almost all kinds of expenses abroad.

The official aim of KASP is to develop an effective and internationally competitive workforce and a research currently being conducted by Hilal (2011) suggests that a major outcome of the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP) is to broaden the worldview of Saudi students and to provide them with opportunities for engagement with other cultures (Larry Smith, 2013). It can be seen that the government try to make Saudi become more powerful at international status. Education is the best way to strengthen its power.

 Saudi Arabia’s oil revenue experience a decline in the 1980s and the government may consider oil-export was not a permanent way to support the country. The Ministry of Higher Education contends that KASP is an attempt to expand Saudi tertiary education and to help diversify employment within the country and to lift its dependence upon the oil industry (Larry Smith, 2013). Education and innovations are the future of Saudi Arabia, and that’s the reason why Saudi Arabia attaches great importance to fund students.

Meanwhile, the relationship between Saudi’s government and the western countries (especially the United States) can not be neglected. The Gulf War strengthened the bond of Saudi and U.S., in which the Saudi helped America fight against Iraq. It is estimated that near 40,000 Saudi students studied in North America in 2010. Besides, the Saudi Arabia intends to eliminate the cliché and misunderstanding from the western world, which is often considered conservative, and even frequently mentioned with terrorism. Interactions are strongly desired by this Arabic country which attempts to show their hospitable nature to the world.

For the students themselves, part of the reason for the high numbers of students studying abroad is the fact that stipends are very attractive, and the prospect of studying overseas also has a growing ‘social’ appeal among Saudi youth, particularly in terms of becoming a ‘global citizen’ (Larry Smith, 2013). 

Here comes a question: how does the education system in Saudi Arabia prepare the students to study abroad?

The first one is language. Using English in teaching in an Arabic country may be difficult. Hard though it is, the long-term goal may well be to teach in English entirely in some (perhaps many) subject fields. A huge step has been taken in those institutions in Saudi Arabia that focus the preparatory year with a large time allocation to the explicit teaching of English (Larry Smith, 2013). The increase in using English in teaching help students get accustomed to the foreign language environment and enables them to adapt the foreign culture quickly.

Next, the educational curriculums are not restricted to religious-related courses. Mathematics, science, literature, foreign language and history are taught in Saudi schools. A variety of course laid foundations for students’ oversea study. Moreover, Saudi Arabia owns a mature application system and strict procedures. Students can always be funded by KASP or other self-funding programs, which guarantees their oversea life.

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